Passive Forms of Verbs -Part 3

Method 3. Using the active tense of the verb To Be
This is the most common spoken form.
The formation pattern is active tense of verb To Be + subject + air + possessive adjective + verbal noun.
The possessive adjective must agree in gender and plurality with the  subject.
The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the following word whenever possible.

In the Present Passive :
Form Present Passive Construction
Statement Tha an leabhar air a thogail - The book is lifted / The book has been lifted
Tha e air a thogail - It is lifted / It has been lifted
Negative Chan eil am balach air a bhualadh - The boy is not hit / The boy has not been hit
Chan eil e air a bhualadh - He is not hit / He has not been hit
Interrogative A bheil an uinneag air a fosgladh? - Is the window opened? / Has the window not been opened?
A bheil i air a fosgladh? - Is it opened? / Has it been opened?
Negative Interrogative Nach eil an dnnear air a h-ullachadh? - Is the dinner not prepared? / Has the dinner not been prepared?
Nach eil i air a h-ullachadh? - Is it not prepared? / Has it not been prepared?

In the Past Passive
:
Form Past Passive Construction
Statement Bha a' chaileag air a togail - The girl was lifted / The girl had been lifted
Bha i air a togail - She was lifted / She had been lifted
Negative Cha robh na balaich air am bualadh - The boys were not hit / The boys had not been hit
Cha robh iad air am bualadh - They had not been hit
Interrogative An robh na coin air am faicinn? - Were the dogs seen? / Had the dogs not been seen?
An robh sinn air ar faicinn? - Were we seen? / Had we been seen?
Negative Interrogative Nach robh a' chlann air am biadhadh? - Were the children not fed? / Had the children not been fed?
Nach robh iad air am biadhadh? - Were they not fed? / Had they not been fed?

In the Future (Habitual Present) Passive
:
Form Future Passive Construction
Statement Bidh an sgeul air a mneachadh - The story will be explained / The story will have been explained
Bidh i air a mneachadh - It will be explained / It will have been explained
Negative Cha bhi na balaich air an cur a-muigh - The boys will not be put out / The boys will not have been put out
Cha bhi iad air an cur a-muigh - They will not be put out / They will not have been put out
Interrogative Am bi am piste air a bhiadhadh? - Will the child be fed? / Will the child have been fed?
Am bi e air a bhiadhadh? - Will he be fed? / Will it have been fed?
Negative Interrogative Nach bi a' chraobh air a gearradh sos? - Will the tree not be cut down? / Will the tree not have been cut down?
Nach bi i air a gearradh sos? - Will it not be cut down? / Will it not have been cut down?

In the Conditional (Habitual Past) Passive
:
Form Conditional Passive Construction
Statement Bhiodh am prgram air a dhanamh - The programme would be made / The programme would have been made
Bhithinn air mo thogail - I would be lifted /  I would have been lifted
Negative Cha bhiodh na h-uinneagan air an glanadh - The windows would not be cleaned / The windows would not have been cleaned
Cha bhiodh iad air an glanadh - They would not be cleaned / They would not have been cleaned
Interrogative Am biodh an cr air a chradh? - Would the car be repaired? / Would the car have been repaired?
Am biodh e air a chradh? - Would it be repaired? / Would it have been repaired?
Negative Interrogative Nach biodh an teine air a chur thuige ? - Would the fire not be lit? / Would the fire not have been lit?
Nach biodh e air a chur thuige? - Would it not be lit? / Would it not have been lit?

Method 3 with The Interrogative Pronouns D, C and Cia Mheud
The possessive adjective a (his/its) always precedes the verbal noun :

D bhiodh air a thogail an-sin? - What would be built there?

C bhios air fhgail air ais? - Who will be left behind?
Cia mheud duine a bha air a chur air falbh? - How many people were sent away?


The Continuous Passive Mood
The formation pattern is active tense of verb To Be + subject + augmented prepositions of aig + verbal noun.
The augmented preposition (see ) must agree in gender and plurality with the subject.
The augmented prepositions gam, gad and ga (his/its) lenite the following word whenever possible.

Only the present and past tenses need be considered :
Tense Continuous Passive Construction
Present

Tha mi gam bhualadh - I am being hit

Chan eil taigh ga thogail - A house is not being built
A bheil iad gan gilan? - Are they being carried?
Nach eil litir ga cur? - Is a letter not being sent?
Past Bha e ga fhgail - He was being left
Cha robh an cr ga ghluasad? - The car was not being moved?
An robh sinn gar coinneachadh? - Were we being met?
Nach robh na cearcan gam biadhadh? - Were the chickens not being fed?


The Passive Infinitive Verb

The formation pattern is active tense of verb To Be + subject + ri + lenited verbal noun :
Only the present and past tenses need be considered :

Tha taigh ri thogail an-seo - A house is to be built here

A bheil an t-rd ri bhualadh - Is the hammer to be struck
Bha sinn ri ghilan - We were to be carried
An robh i ri ghluasad? - Was she to be moved?

In literature the augmented prepositions of ri are frequently encountered. They then must agree in gender and plurality with the  subject. The forms rim, rid and ri (his/its) lenite the following word whenever possible :

Tha taigh ri thogail an-seo - A house is to be built here

A bheil an t-rd ri bhualadh - Is the hammer to be struck
Bha sinn rir gilan - We were to be carried
An robh i ri gluasad? - Was she to be moved?

All augmented prepositions are shown in

Method 4. Using the Past Participle
To form past participles add -te to the root of the verb irrespective of the spelling rule. However, a few historic forms persist which adhere to the traditional spelling rule. This method has limited use in both the written and spoken language :

Tha am balach togte - The boy is lifted

Bha an doras dinte - The door was closed
Bidh an obair dante (danta) - The work will be done
Bhiodh an duine psta - The man would be married


Method 5. Using the Third Person Plural with the Active Verb

Frequently in spoken Gidhlig the passive is conveyed as in English by using the 3rd person plural in an impersonal way :

Tha iad a' togail bth r - A new shop is being built - lit. They are building a new shop

A bheil iad a' reic buntta an seo? - Are potatoes sold here? - lit. Do they sell potatoes here?

NEW WORDS

Nouns
piste (m) - child, infant prgram (m) - programme

Verbs

mnich, mneachadh (do) - explain (to)


EXERCISE 1 Change the following to Method 3

1.Thuirt an cathraiche gun cmar a' choinneamh aig seachd uairean

2.Rugadh agus thogadh mi ann an Sternabhagh
3.Bhleoghainnte an crodh d thuras gach l 4.Gherradh am feur agus thogadh na cruachan leis an tuathanach
5.Fgar an c na aonar fad an l 6.Cha do bhruidhneadh Gidhlig riutha nuair a bha iad g
7.Cuirear dhan leabaidh thu mura bi thu math 8.Chualas fuaim nenach taobh a-muigh
9.Glacar deagh bhric anns an abhainn sin 10.Clbhuailear na leabhraichean ann an Dn ideann
11.Dhinte na dorsan aig meadhan oidhche 12.Chthear anns a' phirc iad a h-uile meadhan-l
13.Nach do sgrobhadh an seann leabhar sin le manaich 14.Caillear mran obraichean le bhith a' dnadh na minne

EXERCISE 2
a. Translate into Gidhlig using Method 3

b. Translate into Gidhlig using Method 3 replacing the nouns subjects with pronouns

1.The thief was caught and put in prison

2.Many people were banished from their homes in the highlands
3.Dinner was made and eaten in less than an hour 4.The people were deceived when the taxes were increased
5.The baby would be given a new toy on her birthday

6.Neither the doors nor the windows were locked

7.Poverty is seen throughout Africa 8.The top of the mountain was reached by (tre) the difficult route
9.The boys were seen stealing in the shop 10.The game will be played in the rain
11.The stories will be translated from Gidhlig to English 12.The car door was left unlocked (gun a ghlasadh)

EXERCISE 3 Translate into Gidhlig

1.Why was the food returned to the shop?

2.What was written in the letter you got from your sister?
3.When will the house be built? 4.Where will the game be played?
5.When was the road repaired?

6.Who was left without a drink?

7.How could (would) that be done? 8.Where are the dishes put?

EXERCISE 4 Translate into English

1.Bha dnnear ga deasachadh anns a' chidsin

2.Chan ann tric a tha breac ga ghlacadh anns an allt seo
3.Tha na caoraich gan cruinneachadh cmhla 4.Tha saoghalan eile gan ruigsinn a-nis
5.A bheil prsean gam meudachadh anns a' bhth aca? 6.Tha a' choille seo ri gearradh sos a dh'aithghearr

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EXERCISE 5 Translate into Gidhlig

1.A house is being built in the middle of the park

2.The coal was being carried on his back
3.A story was being read by the pupil 4.The old woman was being moved to another hospital
5.He is being deceived by them 6.That has to be seen (for) to be believed

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ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.Thuirt an cathraiche gum bi a' choinneamh air a cumail aig seachd uairean 2.Bha mi air mo bhreith agus mo thogail ann an Sternabhagh
3.Bhiodh an crodh air am bleoghann d thuras gach l 4.Bha am feur air a ghearradh is na cruachan air an togail leis an tuathanach
5.Bidh an c air fhgail na aonar fad an l 6.Cha robh Gidhlig air a bruidhinn riutha nuair a bha iad g
7.Bidh thu air do chur dhan leabaidh mura bi thu math 8.Bha fuaim nenach air a cluinntinn taobh a-muigh
9.Bidh deagh bhric air an glacadh anns an abhainn sin 10.Bidh na leabhraichean air an clbhualadh ann an Dn ideann
11.Bhiodh na dorsan air an dnadh aig meadhan oidhche 12.Bidh iad air am faicinn anns a' phirc a h-uile meadhan-l
13.Nach robh an seann leabhar sin air a sgrobhadh le manaich 14.Bidh mran obraichean air an call le bhith a' dnadh na minne

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2a
1.Bha am mirleach air a ghlacadh agus a chur ann am prosan 2.Bha  mran daoine air am fuadachadh s an dachaighean air a' Ghidhealtachd
3.Bha dnnear air a danamh is ithe ann an na bu lugha na lethuair a thde 4.Bha na daoine air am mealladh nuair a bha na csean air am meudachadh
5.Bhiodh dideag r air a toirt dhan leanabh air a co-l-breith 6.Cha robh na dorsan no na h-uinneagan air an glasadh
7.Bidh bochdainn air a faicinn air feadh Afraga 8.Bha mullach na beinne air a ruigsinn tre na slighe doirbhe
9.Bha na balaich air am faicinn a' goid anns a' bhth 10.Bidh an gama air a chluich anns an uisge
11.Bidh na sgeil air an eadar-theangachadh bho Ghidhlig gu Beurla 12.Bha doras a' chir air fhgail gun a ghlasadh

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2b
1.Bha e air a ghlacadh agus a chur ann am prosan 2.Bha iad air am fuadachadh s an dachaighean air a' Ghidhealtachd
3.Bha i air a danamh is a h-ithe ann an na bu lugha na lethuair a thde 4.Bha iad air am mealladh nuair a bha na csean air am meudachadh
5.Bhiodh i air a toirt dhan leanabh air a co-l-breith 6.Cha robh iad air an glasadh
7.Bidh i air a faicinn air feadh Afraga 8.Bha e air a ruigsinn tre na slighe doirbhe
9.Bha iad air am faicinn a' goid anns a' bhth 10.Bidh e air a chluich anns an uisge
11.Bidh iad air an eadar-theangachadh bho Ghidhlig gu Beurla 12.Bha e air fhgail gun a ghlasadh

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 3

1.Carson a bha am biadh air a thilleadh dhan bhth?

2.D bha air a sgrobhadh anns an litir a fhuair thu bho do phiuthar?
3.Cuin a bhios an taigh air a thogail? 4.Cit am bi an gama air a chluich?
5.Cuin a bha an rathad air a chradh?

6.C bha air fhgail gun deoch?

7.Ciamar a bhiodh sin air a dhanamh? 8.Cit am bi na soithichean air an cur?

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 4
1.Dinner was being prepared in the kitchen 2.It isn't often that trout are caught in this burn
3.The sheep are being rounded together 4.Other worlds are being reached now
5.Are prices being increased in their shop? 6.This forest is to felled soon

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 5
1.Tha taigh ga thogail ann am meadhan na pirce 2.Bha gual ga ghilan air an druim aige
3.Bha sgeul ga leughadh leis an sgoilear 4.Bha a' chailleach ga gluasad gu ospadal eile
5.Tha e ga mhealladh leotha 6.Tha sin ri fhaicinn airson a chreidsinn

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