The Passive Voice of Verbs - Literary Form

The Passive Voice, like the Active Voice, is found in three tenses: Future (Habitual Present), Past & Conditional (Habitual past).

Gidhlig has three different methods of rendering passive verbs

Method 1: Using Verb Endings
Except for a few common verbs, this form can be regarded as a high register literary or formal form.
Intransitive verbs formed by this method should be regarded as impersonal forms. (These verbs can never be passive)

REGULAR VERBS
Future (Present Habitual) Passive Tense

The dependent and independent forms are identical and are derived by replacing the active future ending -idh / -aidh with -ear / -ar. The negative and interrogative particles are identical to the active voice :
Verb Root Dependent Independent Relative
buail - hit / strike Am buailear mi? * - Will I be struck?
Cha bhuailear mi - I will not be struck
Nach buailear mi - Will I not be struck?
Buailear mi - I will be struck bhuailear
fg - leave Am fgar sinn? * - Will we be left?
Chan fhgar sinn - We will not be left
Nach fhgar sinn? - Will we not be left?
Fgar sinn - We will be left dh'fhgar
l - drink An lar e? - Will it be drunk?
Chan lar e - It will not be drunk
Nach lar e? - Will it not be drunk?
lar e - It will be drunk dh'lar
sgrobh - write An sgrobhar i? - Will it be written?
Cha sgrobhar i - It will not be written
Nach sgrobhar i? - Will it not be written?
Sgrobhar i - It will be written sgrobhar
tog - lift / build / raise An togar iad? - Will they be lifted?
Cha togar iad - They will not be lifted
Nach togar iad? - Will they not be lifted?
Togar iad - They will be lifted thogar

* The interrogative particle is An except before verbs beginning with b, f, m, or p when it is Am
† Cha
/ Chan should only lenite verbs beginning with b, f, m, p, c, g or s. However there is a growing tendency to also lenite t and d
‡ Chan
is used before verbs beginning with a vowel or lenited f
Nach
lenites verbs beginning with f

Past Passive Tense
The dependent and independent forms are identical and are derived by adding the ending -eadh / -adh  to the past active tense. The negative and interrogative particles are identical to the active voice :
Verb Root Dependent Independent Relative
buail - hit / strike An do bhuaileadh mi? - Was I struck?
Cha do bhuaileadh mi - I was not struck
Nach do bhuaileadh mi - Was I not struck?
Bhuaileadh mi - I was struck bhuaileadh
fg - leave An do dh'fhgadh sinn? - Were we left?
Cha do dh'fhgadh sinn - We were not left
Nach do dh'fhgadh sinn? - Were we not left?
Dh'fhgadh sinn - We were left dh'fhgadh
l - drink An do dh'ladh e? - Was it drunk?
Cha do dh'ladh e - It was not drunk
Nach do dh'ladh e? - Was it not drunk?
Dh'ladh e - It was drunk dh'ladh
sgrobh - write An do sgrobhadh i? - Was it written?
Cha do sgrobhadh i - It was not written
Nach do sgrobhadh i? - Was it not written?
Sgrobhadh i - It was written sgrobhadh
tog - lift / build / raise An do thogadh iad? - Were they lifted?
Cha do thogadh iad - They were not lifted
Nach do thogadh iad? - Were they not lifted?
Thogadh iad - They were lifted thogadh

This one is commonly used in speech :
Thogadh mi ann an Dn ideann - I was raised (brought up) in Edinburgh

Conditional Passive Tense

The dependent and independent forms are derived by replacing the active conditional ending -inn / -eadh / -adh with -te irrespective of the spelling rule. The negative and interrogative particles are identical to the active voice :
Verb Root Dependent Independent Relative
buail - hit / strike Am buailte mi? * - Would I be struck?
Cha bhuailte mi - I would not be struck
Nach buailte mi - Would I not be struck?
Bhuailte mi - I would be struck bhuailte
fg - leave Am fgte sinn? * - Would we be left?
Chan fhgte sinn - We would not be left
Nach fhgte sinn? - Would we not be left?
Dh'fhgte sinn - We would be left dh'fhgte
l - drink An lte e? - Would it be drunk?
Chan lte e - It would not be drunk
Nach lte e? - Would it not be drunk?
Dh'lte e - It would be drunk dh'lte
sgrobh - write An sgrobhte i? - Would it be written?
Cha sgrobhte i - It would not be written
Nach sgrobhte i? - Would it not be written?
Sgrobhte i - It would be written sgrobhte
tog - lift / build An togte iad? - Would they be lifted?
Cha togte iad - They would not be lifted
Nach togte iad? - Would they not be lifted?
Thogte iad - They would be lifted thogte

* The interrogative particle is An except before verbs beginning with b, f, m, or p when it is Am
† Cha
/ Chan should only lenite verbs beginning with b, f, m, p, c, g or s. However there is a growing tendency to also lenite t and d
‡ Chan
is used before verbs beginning with a vowel or lenited f
Nach
lenites verbs beginning with f

In the Isles of Lewis and Harris the alternative ending -iste / -aiste predominates. These may also be found in dialect literature from these areas :
Verb Root Dependent Independent Relative
buail - hit / strike Am buailiste mi? - Would I be struck?
&c
Bhuailiste mi - I would be struck bhuailiste
fg - leave Am fgaiste sinn? - Would we be left?
&c
Dh'fhgaiste sinn - We would be left dh'fhgaiste
l - drink An laiste e? - Would it be drunk?
&c
Dh'laiste e - It would be drunk dh'laiste
sgrobh - write An sgrobhaiste i? - Would it be written?
&c
Sgrobhaiste i - It would be written sgrobhaiste
tog - lift / build An togaiste iad? - Would they be lifted?
&c
Thogaiste iad - They would be lifted thogaiste


IRREGULAR VERBS

The rules for the particles before the dependent form is identical to regular verbs :
The interrogative is Am before verbs beginning with b & f ;
The negative Cha will lenite all verbs except for verbs beginning with d and t ;
The negative interrogative Nach will lenite verbs beginning with f

The passive voice of irregular verbs is formed in the same way as regular verbs with only a few exceptions :
Verb Root Mood Future
(Present Habitual)
Past Conditional
(Past Habitual)

abair - say

Independent & Relative theirear thuirteadh theirte / theiriste
Dependent abrar tuirteadh abairte / abairiste
beir - bear / catch / grasp Independent & Relative beirear

rugadh

bheirte / bheiriste
Dependent beirear d'rugadh beirte / beiriste

cluinn - hear

Independent & Relative cluinn(t)ear chualas chluinnte / chluinniste
Dependent cluinn(t)ear cualas cluinnte / cluinniste
dan - make / do Independent & Relative nithear

rinneadh

dhante / dhanaiste
Dependent danar d'rinneadh dante / danaiste

faic - see

Independent & Relative chthear chunnacas chte / chithiste
Dependent faicear facas faicte / faiciste
faigh - get Independent & Relative gheibhear fhuaras gheibhte / gheibhiste
Dependent faighear d'fhuaras faighte / faighiste
rach - go * Independent & Relative thidear chaidheas rachte / dheighiste
Dependent tidear deachas rachte / deighiste
ruig - reach / arrive Independent & Relative ruigear riningeadh ruigte / ruigiste
Dependent ruigear d'riningeadh ruigte / ruigiste
thig - come * Independent & Relative thigear thinigeas thigte / thigiste
Dependent tigear tinigeas tigte / tigiste
thoir - give / take Independent & Relative bheirear

thugadh

bheirte / bheiriste
Dependent toirear tugadh toirte / toiriste

*
The verbs thig - come and rach - go also have 'passive' forms which function as impersonal verbs :
Ma thigear dhan choinneimh - If anyone comes to the meeting
Chaidheas thall thairis - Everyone went abroad

This verb and tense is the only irregular one commonly used in speech :
Rugadh is thogadh mi ann an Dn ideann - I was born and raised (brought up) in Edinburgh


INCOMPLETE VERBS

The rules for the particles before the dependent form is identical to regular complete verbs:
The interrogative is Am is used.
The negative Chan will lenite.
The negative interrogative Nach will lenite.

The auxiliary verbs Feum and Faod have passive forms in all tenses, and are commonly used impersonally in speech :
Verb Root Form Future (Present Habitual) Past Conditional

feum - must

Independent & Relative feumar dh'fheumadh dh'fheumte / dh'fheumaiste
Dependent feumar feumadh feumte / feumaiste
faod - may Independent & Relative faodar

dh'fhaodadh

dh'fhaoite / dh'fhaodaiste
Dependent faodar faodadh faoite / faodaiste

The rule regarding word order inversion applies :
Feumar taigh r a thogail - A new house must be built (One would need to build a new house)
Chan fheumadh taigh r a thogail - A new house did not need to be built (One would not need to build a new house)
Dh'fheumte a' cheist a fhreagairt - The question would need to be answered (One would need to answer the question)
Nach fheumte a' cheist a fhreagairt - Would the question not need to be answered (Would one not need to answer the question)

Dh'fhaoite is used idiomatically with a conjectural meaning, and often in conjunction with 'S math :
Dh'fhaoite gun tig e - Perhaps he will come
'S math dh'fhaoite gum faic mi thu - Maybe I will see you

'S math dh'fhaoite is commonly shortened to 'S maite or 'S mathaid in both the written and spoken language

The assertive verb cannot be passive. However, an absurd construction has arisen with the incomplete verb 's urrainn.  The rule regarding word order inversion applies :
'S urrainnear taigh a thogail an seo - A house can be built here
Chan urrainnear taigh a thogail an seo - A house can't be built here
B' urrainnear taigh a thogail an seo - A house could be built here


THE VERB TO BE

The verb To Be has analagous forms. Although they can have a passive meaning they are usually regarded as impersonal constructions :
Tense Dependent Independent Relative
Present A Bheilear?
Chan eilear
Nach eilear?
Thathar / Thathas thathar / thathas
Future Am bithear?
Cha bhithear
Nach bithear?
Bithear bhithear
Past An robhar?
Cha robhar
Nach robhar?
Bhathar / Bhathas bhathar / bhathas
Conditional Am bithte? / Am bithiste?
Cha bhithte / Cha Bhithiste
Nach bithte? / Nach bithiste?
Bhithte / Bhithiste bhithte / bhithiste

The impersonal forms are generally restricted to formal situations e.g. official notices, newspapers and speeches. In speech they are replaced by the active voice much the same as colloquial English :
Formal Speech
Thathar ag iarraidh duine ealanta - A talented person is sought (= One is looking for a talented person) Tha sinn ag iarraidh duine ealanta - We are looking for a talented person
Bhathar a' seladh fad na h-oidhche - The sailing took all night (= One was sailing all night) Bha iad a' seladh fad na h-oidhche - They sailed all night
Am bithear ri iasgach fad na seachdain?   - Will the fishing take all week? (= Will one be fishing all week?) Am bi iad ri iasgach fad na seachdain?   - Will they be fishing all week?


USAGE
With the Dependent Clause

Some examples are given below :
Tha e ag rdh gun togar taigh r - He says that a new house will be built
Tha e ag rdh nach do dhineadh an doras - He says that the door was not closed
Tha e ag rdh gun cumte (cumaiste) an uinneag fosgailte - He says that the window would be kept open
Tha e ag rdh nach fhaodar am biadh ithe - He says that the food may not be eaten

The Relative Verb
The same rules apply as the active voice.
Some examples are given below :
Is tusa a chunnacas a' briseadh na h-uinneig - It's you who was seen breaking the window
Is iadsan a dh'fhgadh air ais - It's they who were left behind
Seo an c nach cuirear gu bs - This is the dog that will not be put to death
Agus seo an leabhar a dh'fheumar a leughadh - And here's the book that must be read

With Interrogative Pronouns

The same rules apply as the active voice.
Some examples are given below :
D sgrobhadh anns an litir? - What was written in the letter?
C chunnacas cmhla riut - Who was seen by you?
Carson nach do dhineadh an doras? - Why was the door not close?
Ciamar a rinneadh sin? - How was that done?
Cuin a dh'fhgadh nan aonar iad? - When were they left alone?
Cit an lar Sake? - Where is (habitual) Sake drunk?

With Conjunctions

The same rules apply as the active voice.
Some examples are given below :
Ruith an c a-staigh mus do dhineadh an doras - The dog ran in before the door was closed
Chan eil fhios agam far am faighte ite na b' fherr - I don't know where a better place could (would) be found
Na gluais gus an sidear an fheadag - Don't move until the whistle is blown
Mura dinear an uinneag thig cuileagan a-staigh - If the window is not closed flies will get in

Saying Yes and No
The pattern is the same as the active. You need to use the positive or negative forms of the verb :
An do chuireadh litir thugad?- Was a letter sent to you? Chuireadh - Yes Cha do chuireadh - No
An togar le Gidhlig iad ? - Will they be raised with Gidhlig? Togar -  Yes Cha togar - No


Verbs requiring Prepositions

Prepositions and prepositional pronouns are used with the verb in the same way as the active mood :
Dh'iarradh air Calum a dhol dhachaigh - Calum was asked to go home
Dh'iarradh orm a dhol dhachaigh - I was asked to go home
Bhruidhneadh gu m-mhodhail ris * - He was spoken to rudely
Innsear an sgeul dha na h-uile * - The story will be told to everyone
Bheirte iuchair an taighe dha * - He would be given the house key
Cuirear fios a-mireach thuca * - They will be sent word (information) tomorrow

* Pronouns and prepositional pronouns are usually placed at the end of a passive clause

NEW WORDS

Adjectives
d-chnanach - bilingual doirbh - difficult

ealanta - talented

fallain - healthy
nenach - strange rar - fresh = new

Adverbial Phrases
le bhith - by, with, by means of

Nouns
bs (m) - death cathraiche (m) - chairperson

ceapaire (m) - sandwich

co-l-breith (m) - birthday
gama (m) - game manach (m) - monk
mirleach (m) - thief taobh (m) - side
cruach (f) - stack cuideachd (f) - company
cuileag (f) - fly dachaigh f) - home
dreuchd (f) - post, career iuchair (f) - key
linn (f ) - century minn (f) - mine
mil (f) - honey mlsean (m) - sweet, dessert
oifis (f) - office sanas (m) - sign, advertisement, clue
sgeir (f ) - skerry, reef sgioba (m & f) - crew

Verbs

bleoghainn, bleoghann - milk

caill, call - lose
clbhuail, clbhualadh - print fuadaich, fuadachadh - exile, banish
goid, goid - steal meall, mealladh - deceive, cheat
meudaich, meudachadh - increase treabh, treabhadh - plough
mlsich, mlseachadh - sweeten spealg, spealgadh - shatter, splinter
tarraing, tarraing - draw, pull suidhich, suidheachadh - situate
ceadaich, ceadachadh - permit, license


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1.Thuirt an cathraiche gun cmar a' choinneamh aig seachd uairean

2.Rugadh agus thogadh mi ann an Sternabhagh
3.Bhleoghainnte an crodh d thuras gach l 4.Gherradh am feur agus thogadh na cruachan leis an tuathanach
5.Fgar an c na aonar fad an l gun chuideachd 6.Cha do bhruidhneadh Gidhlig riutha nuair a bha iad g
7.Cuirear dhan leabaidh thu mura bi thu modhail 8.Chualas fuaim nenach taobh a-muigh
9.Glacar deagh bhric anns an abhainn sin 10.Clbhuailear na leabhraichean ann an Dn ideann
11.Dh'iarradh orm a dhol gu taigh mo sheanmhar 12.Chthear anns a' phirc iad aig gach meadhan-l
13.Nach do sgrobhadh an seann leabhar sin le manaich 14.Caillear mran obraichean le bhith a' dnadh na minne
15.Dh'fheumte sanas soilleir a chur air a' bhalla 16.C chuireadh taobh a-muigh an dorais?
17.Thuirt e gum meallte thall thairis iad 18.Cit an suidhichear an oifis r?
19.Nithear ceapairean rar an seo gach l 20.Cha cheadaichear biadh no deoch anns an talla
21.Bhathas a' treabhadh le eich anns an linn 's a chaidh 22.Thathas ag iarraidh neach d-chnanach airson na dreuchd ire

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig

1.The thief was caught and put in prison

2.Many people were banished from their homes in the highlands
3.Dinner was made and eaten in less than an hour 4.The people were deceived when the taxes were increased
5.The baby would be given a new toy on her birthday

6.A beautiful healthy daughter was born to her

7.Poverty is seen throughout Africa 8.The top of the mountain was reached by means of (tr) the difficult route
9.They were seen stealing in the shop 10.What was written in the letter you got from your sister?
11.Why was the food returned to the shop? 12.The game will be played in the water
13.Cheese will not be found on the moon, but dry rocks will 14.Neither the doors nor the windows were locked
15.The stories will be translated from Gidhlig to English 16.The entire crew were lost at sea when their ship went down
17.Why could (would) the car not be moved? 18.These are the men who were found safe and well after the ship was shattered on the reef by the storm
19.The dessert will be sweetened with honey 20.The light were put on when the curtains were drawn closed

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.The chairman said that the meeting will be held at seven o'clock 2.I was born and raised in Stornoway
3.The cattle were (habitual past) milked twice daily 4.The grass was cut and the stacks built by the farmer
5.The dog will be left alone all day without company 6.Gidhlig wasn't spoken to them when they were young
7.You'll be put to bed unless you're polite 8.A strange noise was heard outside
9.Good trout are caught in that river 10.The books will be printed in Edinburgh
11.I was asked to go to my grandmother's house 12.They are seen in the park every midday
13.Wasn't that old book written by monks? 14.Many jobs will be lost by closing the mine
15.A clear sign would need to be put on the wall 16.Who was put outside the door?
17.He said that they would be cheated abroad 18.Where will the new office be situated?
19.Fresh sandwiches are made here daily 20.Food and drink is not permitted in the hall
21.Ploughing was done by horses last century 22.A bilingual person is required for the new post

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.Ghlacadh am mirleach agus chuireadh ann am prosan e 2.Dh'fhuadaicheadh mran daoine s na dachaighean aca air a' Ghidhealtachd
3.Rinneadh is dh'itheadh dnnear ann an na bu lugha na lethuair a thde 4.Mhealladh na daoine nuair a mheudaicheadh na csean
5.Bheirte dideag r dhan leanabh air a co-l-breith 6.Rugadh nighean bhidheach fhallain dhi
7.Chthear bochdainn air feadh Afraga 8.Rinigeadh mullach na beinne tr na slighe doirbhe
9.Chunnacas iad a' goid anns a' bhth 10.D sgrobhadh anns an litir a fhuair thu bho do phiuthar?
11.Carson a thilleadh am biadh dhan bhth? 12.Cluichear an gama anns an uisge
13.Chan fhaighear cise air a' ghealaich, ach gheibhear creagan tioram ann 14.Cha do ghlaiseadh na dorsan no na h-uinneagan
15.Eadar-theangaichear na sgeil bho Ghidhlig gu Beurla 16.Chailleadh an sgioba air fad nuair a chaidh an long aca fodha
17.Carson nach gluaiste an cr? 18.Seo na daoine a lorgadh math sbhailte nuair a spealgadh an long air an sgeir leis an stoirm
19.Mlsichear am mlsean le mil 20.Chuireadh na solais air nuair a tharraingeadh na cirtearan dinte

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