More Incomplete Verbs

Group 1: Verbs based on the Assertive Verb
A number of verbs in this group were met in . Some other common ones are introduced here.

a. Assertive form of the verb + preposition le. With the prepositional pronouns these are :
Present Tense Past Tense Conditional Tense
Is coma leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c care not, do not like
Bu choma leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c cared not, did not like
Bu choma leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would care not, would not like
Is cuimhne leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c remember
Bu chuimhne leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c remembered
Bu chuimhne leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would remember
Is dcha leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c suppose, think it likely
Bu dcha leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c supposed, thought it likely
Bu dcha leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would suppose, would think it likely
Is fada leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c long
B' fhada leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c longed
B' fhada leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would long
Is iongnadh leam / leat / &c  -
I / you / he / &c wonder, am astonished
B' iongnadh leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c wondered, was astonished
B' iongnadh leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would wonder, would be astonished
Is leisg leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c am loath, reluctant
Bu leisg leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c was loath, was reluctant
Bu leisg leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would be loath, would be reluctant
Is miann leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c desire, wish
Bu mhiann leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c desired, wished
Bu mhiann leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would desire, would wish
Is truagh leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c pity, feel sorrow
Bu truagh leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c pitied, felt sorrow
Bu truagh leam / leat / &c -
I / you / &c would pity, would feel sorrow

A number of these can be rendered using regular verbs :
cuimhnich, cuimhneachadh  - remember Tha mi a' cuimhneachadh - I remember
miannaich, miannachadh - desire, wish Mhiannaich e - He desired
gabh iongantas, gabhail iongantas - be astonished Ghabhadh e iongantas - He would be astonished

b. Assertive form of verb + preposition do. With the prepositional pronouns these are :
Present Tense Past Tense Conditional Tense
Is iginn dhomh / dhut / &c -
I / you / &c really have to, am compelled to
B' iginn dhomh / dhut / &c -
I / you / &c really had to, was compelled to
B' iginn dhomh / dhut / &c -
I / you / &c would really have to, would be compelled to
Is fherr dhomh / dhut / &c -
It's better for me / you / &c
B' fherr dhomh / dhut / &c -
It was better for me / you / &c
B' fherr dhomh / dhut / &c -
It would be better for me / you / &c
Is fheudar dhomh / dhut / &c -
I / you / &c have to, must
B' fheudar dhomh / dhut / &c -
I / you / &c had to
B' fheudar dhomh / dhut / &c -
I / you / &c would have to
Is fhiach dhomh / dhut / &c -
It's worth my / your / &c  while
B' fhiach dhomh / dhut / &c -
It was worth my / your / &c  while
B' fhiach dhomh / dhut / &c -
It would be worth my / your / &c  while

This is often rendered colloquially as 'S d' fhiach dhomh / dhut &c
Words beginning with f are lenited after Is

The Other Forms of the Verb

For the present tense drop the Is and add :
Cha for negative statements Cha mhiann leam sin - I don't desire that
Chan fhada leam mo dhthaich fhin - I don't long for my own country
An for
interrogative
An iginn dhut falbh? - Do you really have to leave? 'S iginn - Yes, Chan iginn - No
An truagh leibh e? - Do you pity him? 'S truagh - Yes, Cha truagh - No
Nach for negative interrogative Nach cuimhne leat i? - Don't you remember her?   'S cuimhne - Yes, Cha chuimhne - No
Nach fhiach dhasan sin? - Is that not worth his while? 'S fhiach - Yes, Chan fhiach - No

These are often rendered colloquially as Nach d' fhiach / 'S d' fhiach / Cha d' fhiach

For the past and conditional tenses add :
Cha for negative statements Cha b' fhiach dhomhsa sin - That wouldn't be worth my while? / That wasn't worth my while?
Cha bu chuimhne leis an sgeul - He didn't remember the story
Am for interrogative Am miann le taigh r? - Do they wish for a new house? Bu mhiann - Yes, Cha bu mhiann - No
Am b' fheudar dhut innse dha? - Did you have to tell him? B' fheudar - Yes, Cha b' fheudar - No
Nach for negative interrogative Nach b' iongnadh leat sin? - Did that not astonish you?  B' iongnadh - Yes, Cha b' iongnadh - No
Nach bu truagh leat iad? - Did you not fell sorrow for them? / Would you not feel sorrow for them?
Bu truagh - Yes, Cha bu truagh - No

Examples of Use


When the incomplete verbs are followed directly by a verb, the verbal noun is used. Exceptions in both literature and the spoken language are the verbs To Be (a bhith), To Go (a dhol) and To Come (a thighinn) :
Is coma leam leughadh - I do not like reading
An cuimhne leat coiseachd dhan sgoil? - Do you remember walking to the school?
Nach fhada leibh tilleadh dhan dthaich agaibh fhin ? - Don't you long to return to your own (native) country?
Bu dcha leis tilleadh dhan sgoil - He thought it likely to return to school
Is iongnadh leatha a bhith anns a' cho-fharpais? - She is astonished to be in the competition?
Bu leisg le bruidhinn rinn - They were loath to speak to us
Bu mhiann leam suidhe sos - I wished to sit down
B' iginn dha coiseachd dhachaigh - He really had (was compelled) to walk home
Is fherr dhaibh a bhith cramach - They are right to be careful
Am feudar dhomh a thighinn a-staigh? - Must I come in?
Is d' fhiach dhaibh a dhol ann - It's worth their while going there

When incomplete verbs are followed by a verbal noun taking a direct object word order reversal takes place. Here the object comes first followed by a + lenited verbal noun. The a is dropped before verbal nouns beginning with vowel or beginning with f + vowel :
An iongnadh leat cel a chluinntinn? - Are you surprised to hear music?
An cuimhne leat am fiolm fhaicinn air an TBh? - Do you remember seeing the film on TV?
Is truagh leam an naidheachd sin a chluinntinn - I am sorry (consider it a pity) to hear that news
Cha b' fheudar dhut do chta a chur ort - You wouldn't have to put your coat on
Nach b' fherr dha litir a sgrobhadh ga mhthair? - Would he not be better writing a letter to his mother?
Cha b' fhiach dhut an litir a fhreagairt - It wouldn't be worth your while answering the letter

When the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective placed before the verbal noun. The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the following word whenever possible :
Cha b' iongnadh le m' fhaicinn? - They weren't surprised to see me?
An cuimhne leis a bualadh? - Does he remember hitting her?
Am fiach dhaibh a thogail an sin? - Is it worth their while building it (=taigh) there?
B' fherr dhaibh a cur anns a' phost - They had better (It would be better for them to) send it by post


Group 4: A few others can be added to the miscellany of incomplete verbs

a. Reporting a completed action using An didh + do + subject + verbal noun. The verbs To Be (a bhith), To Go (a dhol) and To Come (a thighinn) are used in preference to the verbal noun in both literature and the spoken language. When the subject is a pronoun the corresponding prepositional pronouns must be used :
An didh do Mhiri a dhol dhachaigh, dheasaich i an dnnear - After Miri went home, she prepared the dinner
An didh dhomh trod ris, thisich e ri gul - After I scolded to him, he started crying

When the verbal noun takes a direct object word order reversal takes place. Here the object comes first followed by a + lenited verbal noun. The a is dropped before verbal nouns beginning with vowel or beginning with f + vowel :
An didh do Mhiri an dnnear a dheasachadh - After Miri prepared the dinner
An didh dhomh am balach fhaicinn - After I saw the boy
An didh dh an litir a fhreagairt - After she answered the letter

When the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective placed before the verbal noun. The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the following word whenever possible :
An didh do Mhiri a deasachadh - After Miri prepared it (the dinner)
An didh dhomh fhaicinn - After I saw him (the boy)
An didh dh a freagairt - After she answered it (the letter)

b. A very common way to describe need is to use the verb To Be + aig + subject + ri + verbal noun.  When the subject is a pronoun the corresponding prepositional pronouns must be used :
Tha aig Miri ri dhol dhachaigh - Miri has to go home
Bha aig Miri ri thighinn dhachaigh - Miri had to come home
Bidh aig Miri ri bruidhinn riutha - Miri will need to speak to them
Bhiodh aig Miri ri bhith smhach - Miri would need to be quiet
Bha aige ri trod rithe - He had to scold her

The verbs To Be (a bhith), To Go (a dhol) and To Come (a thighinn) are used in preference to the verbal noun in both literature and the spoken language. The initial a of the infinitive is elided after the preposition ri in both literature and the spoken language.

When the verbal noun takes a direct object word order reversal takes place. Here the object comes first followed by a + lenited verbal noun. The a is dropped before verbal nouns beginning with vowel or beginning with f + vowel :
Bha aig Miri ri(s) an dnnear a dheasachadh -  Miri had to prepare the dinner
Tha agam ri(s) an litir a fhreagairt - I have to answer the letter
Bha aig Calum ri(s) am balach fhaicinn - Calum had to see the boy

‡ ri in this situation is not followed by the dative as is does not directly qualify the object

When the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective placed before the verbal noun. The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the following word whenever possible :
Bha aig Miri ra (ri a) deasachadh -  Miri had to prepare it (the dinner)
Tha agam ra (ri a) freagairt -  I have to answer it (the letter)
Bha aig Calum rim (ri m') fhaicinn - Calum had to see me

the augmented prepositions of ri are commonly used. These can be found in

Although not standard language, in some dialects the preposition ri has been dropped giving such forms as :
Tha aig Miri a dhol dhachaigh - Miri has to go home
Bha aige trod rithe - He had to scold her
Bha aig Miri an dnnear a dheasachadh -  Miri had to prepare the dinner
Bha aig Calum m' fhaicinn - Calum had to see me

A common alternative is to use the noun feum (= need) after the verb To Be :
Bha feum aig Miri ri thighinn dhachaigh - Miri had to come home
Bha feum aige ri trod rithe - He had to scold her
Tha feum agam ri an litir a fhreagairt -   I have to answer the letter
Bha feum aig Calum rim' fhaicinn - Calum had to see me

All other incomplete verbs constructed using the verb To Be + noun + aig follow the same pattern

NEW WORDS

Adjectives
truagh - sorrowful, miserable

Nouns
faradh (m) - fare feum (m & f) - need
fiach (m) - value, worth foirm (m) - form
iongantas (m) - astonishment, phenomenon leisgeul (m) - excuse, apology
miann (m) - desire, wish prtaidh (m) - party
stiireadh (m)  - instruction
boglach (f) - bog(land) cuimhne (f) - memory
iginn (f) - compulsion, emergency pile (f) - pill
riaghailt-bhdh (f) - diet

Verbs
aidich, aideachadh - admit, confess berr, bearradh - shave
biadh, biadhadh - feed buair, buaireadh - disturb, upset
cuimhnich, cuimhneachadh - remember feuch, feuchainn - test
fiosraich, fiosrachadh - experience gabh iongantas, gabhail iongantas - be astonished
guil, gul - cry, weep miannaich, miannachadh - desire, wish
troid, trod (ri) - scold, reprimand

Verbal Phrases
thoir leabaidh air - go to bed
thug mi mo leabaidh orm - I went to (my) bed
bheir e a leabaidh air - he will go to (his) bed
bheireadh sibh ur leabaidh oirbh - you would go to (your) bed
tha i a' toirt a leabaidh oirre - she is going to (her) bed


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English
1.B' fherr dhuibh ur seacaid a chur oirbh 2.'S coma leam cofaidh
3.Nach fhada leat na saor-lithean? 4.B' iongnadh leam an tigeadh e dhan phrtaidh
5.Bu leisg dha aideachadh gun d'rinn e an eucoir 6.B' fhada leatha pos mr de chic sheclaid
7.'S truagh leam cluinntinn mu bhs do mhthar 8.'S iginn dhut a dhol air riaghailt-bhdh
9.Nach b' fherr dh an obair-sgoile a dhanamh anns an t-semar aice fhin? 10.Cha b' fhiach dhomhsa an trod-san
11.Gabhaibh mo leisgeul ach cha chuimhne leam sibhse ag innse ur n-ainm dhomh 12.B' fheudar dhomh na cearcan a bhiadhadh
13.An didh dh na soithichean a nighe, thug i a leabaidh oirre 14.Bha agam ra fhaicinn dhomh fhin
15.Thuirt e nach robh feum aige ri faradh a' bhus a phigheadh 16.Chuir mi umam mo line an didh dhomh bearradh
17.An didh dha an talamh fheuchainn, choisich e thairis air a' bhoglaich 18.Cha chuimhne leam sin innse dhaibh

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig
1.You really must tell me the truth 2.I was sorry to hear them say he was guilty
3.I know he will be astonished when he hears that 4.I wasn't sure if she would be surprised to see me
5.You would be better reading the instructions again 6.I wouldn't wish to upset you
7.Calum was not surprised to hear the sad news 8.Would it not be better for them to fill (out) the form again?
9.After I experienced their situation, I pitied them 10.I am astonished he did as you asked him
11.I had to make sure everything was alright 12.They were compelled to build their house near the river
13.Do you know if he remembers me? 14.It's not worth her while taking the pills
15.Miri was reluctant to hold the party in her own house 16.They longed for a calm moment to themselves
17.No-one wishes to hear your lies 18.I had to get a new job

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.You had better put on your jacket 2.I don't care for coffee
3.Do you not long for the holidays? 4.I would be surprised if he came to the party
5.He was reluctant to admit he committed the crime 6.She longed for a large piece of chocolate cake
7.I am sorry to hear of your mother's death 8.You really must go on a diet
9.Would she not be better doing her schoolwork in her own room? 10.It wasn't worth my time chastising them
11.Excuse me but I don't remember you telling me your name 12.I had better feed the chickens
13.After she washed the dishes she went off to bed 14.I had to see it (him) for myself
15.He said he didn't need to pay the bus fare 16.I put on my shirt after I shaved
17.After testing the ground, he walked over the bog 18.I don't remember telling them the story

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.'S iginn dhut an fhrinn innse dhomh 2.Bu truagh leam cluinntinn iad ag rdh gun robh e ciontach
3.Tha fios agam gun gabh e iongantas nuair a chluinneas e sin 4.Cha robh mi cinnteach nam b' iongnadh leatha m' fhaicinn
5.B' fherr dhut na stiiridhean a leughadh a-rithist 6.Cha bu mhiann leam do bhuaireadh
7.Cha b' iongnadh le Calum an naidheachd mhuladach a chluinntinn 8.Nach b' fherr dhaibh am foirm a lonadh a-rithist?
9.An didh dhomh an suidheachadh aca fhiosrachadh, bu truagh leam iad 10.'S iongnadh leam gun d'rinn iad mar a dh'iarr thu orra
11a.Bha agam ri danamh cinnteach gun robh a h-uile n ceart gu ler
11b.B' fheudar dhomh danamh cinnteach gun robh a h-uile n ceart gu ler
12.B' iginn dhaibh an taigh aca a thogail faisg air an abhainn
13.Eil fhios agad an cuimhne leis mi? 14.Cha d' fhiach leatha na pilichean a ghabhail
15.Bu leisg le Miri am prtaidh a chumail anns an taigh aice fhin 16.B' fhada le ine chiin dhaibh fhin
17.Cha mhiann le duine sam bith na breugan agad a chluinntinn 18a.Bha agam ri obair r fhaighinn
18b.B' fheudar dhomh obair r fhaighinn

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