Compound Tenses

Perfect Tenses

The verb To Be provides all the compound active tenses. The preposition air (historically meaning after) replaces the ag or a' of the present participle. This changes the meaning from a continuous mood to an action completed in the past :
Tenses Examples
Present >> Perfect Tha iad a' leughadh - They are reading >> Tha iad air leughadh - They have read

Past >> Past Perfect

Bha iad a' leughadh - They were reading >> Bha iad air leughadh - They had read

Future >> Future Perfect

Bidh iad a' leughadh - They will be reading >> Bidh iad air leughadh - They will have read

Conditional >> Conditional Perfect

Bhiodh iad a' leughadh - They would be reading >> Bhiodh iad air leughadh - They would have read


When the verbal noun takes a direct object word order reversal occurs. Here the object comes first followed by a + lenited verbal noun. The a is dropped before verbal nouns beginning with vowel or beginning with f + vowel :
Tha iad air am post a leughadh - They have read the mail

Tha iad air an litir a fhreagairt - They have answered the letter

Bha mi air am balach fhaicinn - I had seen the boy

Bidh i air am mlsean ithe - She will have eaten the sweet

Bhiodh iad air an cr a ghlanadh - They would have cleaned the car

The noun remains nominative after air

When the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective placed before the verbal noun. The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the verbal noun whenever possible :

Tha mi air do thogail - I have lifted you

Bha i air a fhaicinn - She had seen him

Bidh iad air a h-ithe - They will have eaten it (reiteag (f) - ice-cream)

Bhiomaid air am bualadh  - We would have hit them


Negatives and interrogatives are formed as for the verb To Be :

Cha robh mi air sgrobhadh - I had not written

Am biodh iad air ruith? - Would they have run?

Nach eil i air coiseachd? - Has she not walked?


The verbs To Be (a bhith), To Go (a dhol) and To Come (a thighinn) remain in the infinitive after air :

Chan eil mi air a bhith tinn - I have not been ill

Am biodh iad air a thighinn? - Would they have come?

Nach bi iad air a dhol? - Will they not have gone?


Continuous Perfect Tenses

The Continuous Perfect Tenses are formed by placing air a bhith before the present participle :
Tenses Examples
Present >>
Continuous Perfect
Tha iad a' leughadh - They are reading >>
Tha iad air a bhith a' leughadh - They have been reading

Past >>
Continuous Past Perfect

Bha iad a' leughadh - They were reading >>
Bha iad air a bhith a' leughadh - They had been reading

Future >>
Continuous Future Perfect

Bidh iad a' leughadh - They will be reading >>
Bidh iad air a bhith a' leughadh - They will have been reading

Conditional >>
Continuous Conditional Perfect

Bhiodh iad a' leughadh - They would be reading >>
Bhiodh iad air a bhith a' leughadh - They would have been reading


When a direct object follows the verbal noun the pattern is the same as the root tenses :

Tha iad air a bhith a' leughadh leabhar - They have been reading a book

Bha mi air a bhith a' faicinn a' bhalaich - I had been seeing the boy

Bidh i air a bhith ag ithe a' mhlsein - She will have been eating the sweet

Bhiodh iad air a bhith a' glanadh a' chir - They would have been cleaning the car

described how, except for an indefinite singular noun, a noun following a verbal noun is in the genitive case

When a direct pronoun follows the verbal noun the pattern is the same as the root tenses. As described in Augmented Prepositions must be used :

Tha iad air a bhith ga leughadh - They have been reading it (leabhar (m) - book)

Bha mi air a bhith ga fhaicinn - I had been seeing him (balach (m) - boy)

Bidh i air a bhith ga h-ithe - She will have been eating it (briosgaid (f) - biscuit)

Bhiodh iad air a bhith ga ghlanadh - They would have been cleaning it (semar (m)  - room)

All augmented prepositions are shown in

NEW WORDS

Adjectives
reamhar - fat, obese

Adverbs

air mhisg - drunk

o chionn - ago, since, for
turas - once / d thuras  - twice / &c

Nouns

aodach (m) - clothes, cloth

cus (m) - excessive amount = too much
fnadh (m) - phone call post (m) - mail, post
greis (f) - short time, short while lite (f) - porridge
reiteag (f) - ice-cream

Pronouns

an d chuid - both


Verbs

crd, crdadh (ri) - please, agree

fritheil, frithealadh (air) - attend, wait (on)
riaraich, riarachadh - satisfy, set table sguab, sguabadh - sweep, brush
tiormaich, tiormachadh - dry fn, fnadh (gu) - phone

Verbal Phrases

Tha am biadh a' crdadh rium / riut / ris / &c - I  am / you are / he is / &c enjoying the food


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1.Chan eil mi air m' athair fhaicinn o chionn bliadhna

2.Tha a' bhanais air crdadh gu mr rium
3.An robh e air dnnear a dhanamh mus d'rinig thu? 4.Tha mi air feitheamh ort fada gu ler

5.Nan robh airgead aca, bhiodh iad air cr na b' fherr a cheannach

6.A bheil sibh air a chluinntinn? Bha e air mhisg a-rithist
7.Dh'fhaighnich mi dhith an robh i air bainne a chur anns an lite 8.Cha bhithinn air sin a chreidsinn mura robh mi-fhn ann
9.Bha an d chuid a' ghaoth is a' ghrian air na h-aodaich a thiormachadh 10.Tha mi air an lr a sguabadh agus na soithichean a nighe
11.Tha mi air a bhith a' cradh a' chir 12.Bhiodh e air a bhith ochdad bliadhna a dh'aois an t-seachdain seo
13.Chan eil thu air ar riarachadh le d' fhreagairt 14.C tha air a bhith ag ithe mo lite?
15.'S mise tha air am brd a riarachadh 16.C na leabhraichean a tha sibh air leughadh s an leabharlann sin?
17.Tha sinn air cus ciil pop a chluinntinn 18.Bha iad air mo mhealladh gu dona
19.Tha sinn air flraichean ra a chur anns a' ghrradh 20.C bhiodh air a leithid de rud a dhanamh?

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig

1.She has heard that the mountains are a beautiful sight

2.Have you learnt Gidhlig?
3.If we were richer we would have built a bigger house 4.I have attended three meetings already
5.He said he had written a letter home everyday he was away 6.They told me they had seen a monster in the loch
7.The children have grown so tall since I last (previously) saw them 8.He told his friends that he had caught three fat trout
9.I am sure I've broken my right hand 10.I don't think you have entirely understood me
11.We have been in America twice 12.We would have visited them, but the weather was rotten
13.Who has seen my purse? 14.They have bought a new boat
15.Have you not cleaned your teeth yet? 16.She has not been well lately (for a short while)
17.Have you eaten all the biscuits? 18.They said they had been too busy to phone you
19.Have you spent my money? 20.We have painted the wall

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.I haven't seen my father for (since) a year 2.I have enjoyed the wedding immensely
3.Had he made dinner before you arrived? 4.I have waited on you long enough
5.If they had money, they would have bought a better car 6.Have you heard, he was drunk again
7.I asked her if she had put (any) milk in the porridge 8.I wouldn't have believed that if I hadn't been there myself
9.Both the wind and sun had dried the clothes 10.I have swept the floor and washed the dishes
11.I have been repairing the car 12.He would have been eighty years old this week
13.You have not satisfied us with your answer 14.Who has been eating my porridge?
15.I have set the table 16.Which book have you read from that library?
17.We have heard too much pop music 18.They had deceived me badly
19.We have planted new flowers in the garden 20.Who could (would) have done such a thing?

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.Tha i air cluinntinn gu bheil na beanntan nan sealladh bidheach 2.A bheil sibh air Gidhlig ionnsachadh?
3.Nan robh sinn na bu bheartaiche bhiodh sinn air taigh na bu mhotha a thogail 4.Tha mi air tr coinneamhan fhrithealadh cheana
5.Thuirt e gun robh e air litir a sgrobhadh dhachaigh gach l a bha e air falbh 6.Dh'innis iad dhomh gun robh iad air uilebheist fhaicinn anns an loch
7.Tha a' chlann air fs cho rd on a chunnaic mi roimhe iad 8.Dh'innis e do na caraidean aige gun robh e air tr bric reamhar a ghlacadh
9.Tha mi cinnteach gu bheil mi air mo lmh dheas a bhriseadh 10.Chan eil mi a' smaointinn gu bheil sibh air mo thuigsinn air fad
11.Tha sinne air a bhith ann an Aimeireaga d thuras 12.Bhiomaid air tadhal orra, ach bha an t-sde grod
13.C tha air mo sporan fhaicinn? 14.Tha iad air bta r a cheannach
15.Nach eil thu air d' fhiaclan a ghlanadh fhathast? 16.Chan eil i air a bhith math o chionn greis
17.A bheil sibh air na briosgaidean air fad ithe? 18.Thuirt iad gun robh iad air a bhith ro thrang airson fnadh thugad
19.A bheil thu air an t-airgead agam a chosg? 20.Tha sinn air am balla a pheantadh

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