Non-Dative Prepositions

1. Simple Prepositions Taking the Genitive Case of Nouns

There are a few one word prepositions which require the genitive case of nouns :
bhrr / far - from off, off chun / thun - to, towards
r - during thar - over
tre - by means of, through trd - through

Some Examples :
bhrr a' bhalla - from off the wall
chun na coinneimhe - to the meeting
r an t-samhraidh - during the summer
thar an rathaid - over the road

tre sgrobhaidh - by means of writing

trd na glainne - through the glass

‡ r + an and tre + an frequently combine to give rn and tren respectively


2. Compound Prepositions Taking the Genitive Case of Nouns

These are all made up of two elements; a simple dative preposition followed by a noun. The most common are :

a dh'aindeoin  - despite

a dh'ionnsaigh - towards
air beulaibh - in front (of) air claibh / air chl - behind
air feadh - throughout air muin - atop, on top (of)

air sgth - for the sake (of), because (of)

air son / airson - for, for the sake (of)

am broinn - within, inside

am measg - among

an aghaidh - against an ite - instead (of), in place (of)
an comhair - in the direction (of) an didh / s didh - after
an lthair - in the presence (of) a rir - according to
s aonais - without s leth - on behalf (of)
a thaobh - regarding, with regard to fa chomhair - in front (of) / before (place)
mu choinneimh / mu choinneamh - opposite mu dhidhinn - concerning
mun cuairt - around mu thimcheall - around, aroundabout

os cionn - above, over

ri taobh - beside

Some Examples :
a dh'aindeoin do chomhairle - despite your advice a dh'ionnsaigh a' bhaile - toward the town
air beulaibh a' chaisteil - in front of the castle air chl an taighe - behind the house
air feadh an t-saoghail - throughout the world air muin nan leabhraichean - on top of the books
air sgth an t-solais - because of the light airson a' bhalaich - for the boy's sake
am broinn a' phasgain - inside the parcel am measg nan daoine - among the men

an aghaidh na gaoithe  - against the wind

an ite mo mhthar - instead of my mother
an comhair - see section below an didh na dnnearach  - after the dinner
an lthair a' bhanaltraim - in the presence of the nurse a rir an t-sagairt - according to the priest
s aonais airgid  - without money s leth mo pheathar - on behalf of my sister
a thaobh an airgid - regarding the money fa chomhair a' mhinisteir - before the minister
mu choinneimh na h-eaglaise - opposite the church mu dheidhinn na cise - concerning the matter
mun cuairt na pirce - around the park mu thimcheall na sgoile - around the school
os cionn na craoibhe  - above the tree ri taobh an dorais - beside the door

In spoken Gidhlig and often in the written language airson behaves like a simple dative preposition. There is also a growing tendency for some or all these prepositions to be followed by the dative noun; and by the nominative noun when the noun is indefinite.

The preposition an comhair occurs only in a small number of related idioms :
an comhair a' chil - backward (lit. in the direction of the back) Thuit mi an comhair mo chil - I fell backward
Thuit thu an comhair do chil - You fell backward
Thuit e an comhair a chil - He fell backward
Thuit i an comhair a cil - She fell backward
&c
an comhair a' chinn - headlong (lit. in the direction of the head) Thuit mi an comhair mo chinn - I fell headlong
Thuit thu an comhair do chinn - You fell headlong
Thuit e an comhair a chinn - He fell headlong
Thuit i an comhair a cinn - She fell headlong
&c


Compound Prepositions and Pronouns

Compound prepositions cannot be followed directly by a pronoun. Instead the corresponding possessive adjective must used before the final noun element :
dha ur n-aindeoin - despite you dha ar n-ionnsaigh - towards us
dha do rir - according to you dha mo thaobh - with regard to me
air mo bheulaibh - in front of me air a chlaibh - behind him
air a feadh - throughout it [sgeul (f) - story] air am muin - on top of them
air ar sgth - for our sake air mo shon - for my sake
s d' aonais - without you s a leth - on her behalf
fa ar comhair - in front of us mu ur coinneimh - opposite you
mu mo dheidhinn - concerning me mu an timcheall - around them
os a cionn - above her ri mo thaobh - beside me

The augmented prepositions of ann are used when the first element is either am or an (contracted forms of ann = in). You have already met these in :
nam bhroinn - inside me nar measg - among us
nan aghaidh  - against them nur n-ite - in your place (instead of you)
nad dhidh  - after you nar lthair  - in our presence

Similarly whenever the first element (preposition) ends in a vowel the following pronoun can appear as an augmented preposition. These forms are optional but are encountered frequently in both the written and spoken language (see ) :
dhur n-aindeoin - despite you dhar n-ionnsaigh - toward us
dhad rir - according to you dham thaobh - with regard to me
far comhair - in front of us mur coinneimh - opposite you
mum dheidhinn - concerning me mun timcheall - around them

rim thaobh - beside me


As with all other possessive adjectives the emphatic suffices can and are often added. You met these endings in lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)one.gif (974 bytes)one.gif (974 bytes) and lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)one.gif (974 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes) :
air am muin-san - on top of them air ar sgth-ne - for our sake
air mo shon-sa - for my sake s a leth-se - on her behalf

ri mo thaobh-sa - beside me

nam bhroinn-sa - inside me
nar measg-ne - among us nan aghaidh-san  - against them
nad dhidh-sa  - after you nar lthair-ne  - in our presence


3. Other Prepositions

One important preposition takes the nominative noun :
eadar - between  

Some Examples :
Bha c ann eadar am balach agus an nighean - There was a dog between the boy and the girl
A bheil eanchainn agad ann eadar na cluasan? - Do you have a brain between your (the) ears?


Two important prepositions are irregular. Without the article they are followed by the dative noun, but with the article the nominative noun is used. This rule is often broken in the spoken language with both behaving as simple dative prepositions :
gu / gus (before definite noun) - to, until mar - as, like
 
Followed by an Indefinite Noun Followed by a Definite Noun
Bha am fiodh mar chloich - The wood was like stone Bha am fiodh mar a' chlach - The wood was like the stone
Chuir mi litir gu caileig - I sent a letter to a girl Chuir mi litir gus a' chaileag - I sent a letter to the girl

The indefinite noun is always lenited after mar

NEW WORDS

Adjectives

binn - melodious, tuneful

ladarna - bold, impudent

Adverbs

air fad - entire, whole


Nouns

britheamh (m) - judge

cead (m) - permission, licence

fasgadh (m) - shelter

fear-selaidh (m) - guide, leader

gerd (m) - guard

prosanach (m) - prisoner

saoghal (m) - world

seanchaidh (m) - story teller

tarbh (m) - bull

teaghlach (m) - family
cis-litreach (f)  - envelope eanchainn (f)  - brain
minteach (f) - moor

Prepositions

a dh'aindeoin  - despite

a dh'ionnsaigh - towards
air beulaibh - in front of air claibh / air chl - behind
air feadh - throughout air muin - atop, on top (of)
air sgth - on account (of), because (of) airson - for, for the sake (of)
am broinn - within, inside am measg - among
an aghaidh - against an ite - instead of
an comhair  - in the direction (of) an didh / s didh - after
an lthair - in the presence of a rir - according to
s aonais - without s leth - on behalf of
a thaobh - regarding, with regard to bhrr / far - from off, off
chun / thun - to, towards fa chomhair - in front of / before
mu choinneimh - opposite mu dhidhinn - concerning
mun cuairt - around mu thimcheall - around, aroundabout
os cionn - above, over ri taobh - beside
r - during thar - over
tre - by means of, through trd - through

Pronouns
a chile - of one another

Verbs

ceileir, ceileireadh - sing (as a bird)

cr, creadh - comb
cruinnich, cruinneachadh - gather, collect cuir am  falach, cur am falach - hide (transitive verb)
deasaich, deasachadh - prepare, edit leum, leum - jump, leap
sel, seladh - sail


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1.Sheas am prosanach eadar an d gherd fa chomhair a' bhritheimh

2.Bha an teine air mo bheulaibh agus a' chathair air mo chl(aibh)
3.Shel am bta chun a' phuirt air sgth na stoirme 4.Leum an tarbh thar an uillt agus chaidh e am measg a' chruidh
5.Ghlan iad mu thimcheall an taighe airson am mthar 6.An robh iad a' bruidhinn mu mo dhidhinn?
7.Shiubhail iad mun cuairt an t-saoghail s aonais na cloinne aca 8.Chuir e na leabhraichean air muin a chile
9.Chaidh e dhan choinneimh nam ite, agus s aonais mo chead 10.Shabaid iad an aghaidh na gaoithe a dh'ionnsaigh an fhasgaidh
11.Sheas i mu choinneimh an sgthain agus chr i a falt 12.Bha fios againn gun robh sinn am measg charaidean
13.Sgrobh i an litir s ar leth 14.Dha rir, bidh sneachd ann a-mireach
15.Dh'fhg iad an cr aca mu choinneimh a' bhanca 16.Ruith na gerdan s didh a' phrosanaich
17.Bidh mi ann a dh'aindeoin a' chnatain a tha orm 18.D thuirt e a thaobh na litreach?

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig

1.Everyone gathered around the storyteller

2.He went to the door for me
3.There was a terrible storm during the night 4.There is a garden in front of the building
5.The men came in after the women 6.I wouldn't like to be in your place
7.During the winter I would not be without a coal fire 8.She prepared dinner for the entire family
9.The boy was impudent in the presence of the school master 10.We walked around the old castle behind the guide
11.I ran through(out) the park after the dog 12.She placed the kettle on the table beside the pot
13.She hid the money on top of the cupboard 14.They put the card in the envelope
15.The farmer walked over the bridge towards the wood 16.The larks were singing sweetly (melodiously) above the moor
17.They went sailing (to sail) despite the bad weather 18.Regarding the loan, you don't (won't) need to pay it back to me

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.The prisoner stood between the two guards in front of the judge 2.The fire was in front of me and the chair behind me
3.The boat sailed towards the port because of the storm 4.The bull jumped over the burn and went among the cattle
5.They cleaned around the house for their mother 6.Were they speaking about me?
7.They travelled around the world without their children 8.He put the books on top of one another
9.He went to the meeting in my place, and without my permission 10.They fought against the wind towards (the) shelter
11.She stood before (opposite) the mirror and combed her hair 12.We knew we that were among friends
13.She wrote the letter on our behalf 14.According to him, there will be snow tomorrow
15.They left their car opposite the bank 16.The guards ran after the prisoner
17.I'll be there despite the cold I have 18.What did he say regarding the letter?

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.Chruinnich a h-uile duine mun cuairt/mu thimcheall an t-seanchaidh 2.Chaidh e a dh'ionnsaigh/chun an dorais air mo shon-sa
3.Bha stoirm uabhasach ann r na h-oidhche 4.Tha grradh ann air beulaibh an togalaich
5.Thinig na fir a-staigh an didh nam boireannach 6.Cha bu toil leam a bhith nad ite/nur n-ite
7.Rn gheamhraidh cha bhithinn as aonais teine guail 8.Dheasaich i dnnear airson an teaghlaich air fad
9.Bha am balach ladarna an lthair a' mhaighistir-sgoile 10.Choisich e mun cuairt an t-seann chaisteil air chl an fhir-shelaidh
11.Ruith mi air feadh na pirce an didh a' choin 12.Chuir i an coire air a' bhrd ri taobh na poite
13.Chuir i an t-airgead am falach air muin a' phreasa 14.Chuir iad a' chairt am broinn na cise-litreach
15.Choisich an tuathanach thar na drochaide a dh'ionnsaigh na coille 16.Bha na h-uiseagan a' ceileireadh gu binn os cionn na mintiche
17.Chaidh iad a sheladh a dh'aindeoin na droch shde 18.A thaobh an iasaid, chan fheum thu a phigheadh air ais dhomh

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