More Prepositional Pronouns

 

You have already met some of the prepositional pronouns in lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)one.gif (974 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes) and lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)one.gif (974 bytes). This lesson describes the remaining ones.

The prepositional pronouns of / s ‡ - out of, from (a place) :
asam - out of me asainn - out of us
asad - out of you asaibh - out of you
s - out of him asta - out of them
aiste - out of her

Although accented s is pronounced with a short but open vowel

The prepositional pronouns of eadar - between :
eadarainn - between us
eadaraibh - between you
eatarra - between them

The prepositional pronouns of fo - under, below :
fodham - under me fodhainn - under us
fodhad - under you fodhaibh - under you
fodha - under him fpa - under them
foipe - under her

The prepositional pronouns of gu / chun - to, toward :
thugam - to me thugainn - to us
thugad - to you thugaibh - to you
thuige - to him thuca - to them
thuice - to her

The prepositional pronouns of ro ‡ / roimh - before :
romham - before me romhainn - before us
romhad - before you romhaibh - before you
roimhe - before him romhpa - before them
roimhpe - before her

Optional h

The prepositional pronouns of thar ‡ / thairis air  - over, across :
tharam / thairis orm - over me tharainn / thairis oirnn - over us
tharad / thairis ort - over you tharaibh / thairis oirbh - over you
thairis / thairis air - over him tharta / thairis orra - over them
thairte/ thairis oirre - over her

The prepositional pronouns of thar are rarely heard and should be reserved for formal prose. Instead use the prepositional pronouns of air after thairis

The prepositional pronouns of tro / troimh - through :
tromham - through me tromhainn - through us
tromhad - through you tromhaibh - through you
troimhe - through him tromhpa - through them
troimhpe - through her

optional h


Useful Idiom Using  ro
- before :

In association with the verb cuir - put :
Chuir mi romham seasamh aig an doras  - I decided to stand at the door
Chuir e roimhe a dhol dhachaigh - He decided to go home
An do chuir thu romhad cit a bheil thu a' dol? - Have you decided where you are going?

With no object the verbal noun is used, except for a bhith, a dhol and a thighinn when the infinitive is used

When the verb is followed by a verbal noun taking a direct object then word order reversal takes place as already shown for Incomplete Verbs (see lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes)zero.gif (1045 bytes) and ) :
Chuir mi romham cofaidh a dhanamh - I decided to make coffee
Chuir i roimhpe am fiolm r fhaicinn - She decided to see the new film
An do chuir e roimhe an litir a fhreagairt? - Did he decide to answer the letter?

When the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective as already shown for Incomplete Verbs (see lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes)zero.gif (1045 bytes) and ) :
Cuin a chuir iad romhpa d' fhaicinn? - When did they decide to see you?
Chuir sinn romhainn a ghlanadh - We decided to clean it (taigh = masculine)


Useful Idiom Using  fo
- under :

In association with the verb rach - go :
Chaidh an long fodha anns a' ghaillinn - The ship sank (went down) in the storm


Useful Idiom Using  gun - without :

To introduce the idea of not into a sentence use the preposition gun + a bhith + present participle :
Chuir mi romham gun a bhith a' dol air saor-lithean - I decided not to go on holiday (lit. I decided not to be going on holiday)
Chuir mi romham gun a bhith a' gabhail saor-l - I decided not to take a holiday (lit. I decided not to be taking a holiday)


Some Useful Idioms Using  s
- out of :

Chan eil mi cinnteach s - I am not sure of it/him
Cha chuireadh i earbsa asta - She wouldn't trust them
C s a tha thu? - Where are you from? (Where do you originate from?)
Bha iad a' tarraing asam They were mocking/teasing me
Thug iad mo char asam - They cheated me
Leig mi sgriach asam - I screamed out / Leig thu sgriach asad - You screamed out
Thuit am bta s a chile - The boat fell apart

NEW WORDS

Adverbs
s a chile - apart

Nouns
fiolm (m) - film

earbsa (f) - trust

fuath (f) - hatred, loathing
gailleann (f) - storm saighead (f) - arrow

Verbs
cuir ro, cur ro - decide dirt, drtadh - pour
rach fodha, dol fodha - sink

Verbal Phrases
gun a bhith (+ present participle) - not to


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1.Dhirt e an t-uisge thairis oirnn

2.Thilg e a' chlach troimhpe (uinneag)
3.Chaidh am bta fodha 4.Thinig fuath eatarra
5.Bhris an tonn thairis orra 6.Chaidh a brthair roimhpe
7.Chuir sinn litir thuige 8.Bha (an t-)eagal aige romhpa
9.Chuir mi romham gun rachainn dhan taigh-dhealbh 10.Nach cuir thu romhad na tha thu a' dol a dhanamh?
11.Na innis do dhuine eile sin, cm eadarainn e 12.Chuir i roimhpe fhaicinn a-rithist

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig

1.The car went over him

2.The dog went under it (table)
3.He came between us 4.The pain cut through me
5.I wrote a letter to them 6.She left before me
7.Go ahead (before) of me 8.The arrow went through him
9.They decided not to go to the cilidh 10.I decided to sit down
11.Pass it across to me 12.Did you decide not to go there?

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.He poured the water over us 2.He threw the stone through it
3.The boat went under (sank) 4.A hatred came between them
5.The wave broke over them 6.Her brother went in advance of her (before her)
7.We sent (to) him a letter 8.He was afraid of (before) them
9.I decided that I would go to the cinema 10.Will you not decide what you are going to do?
11.Don't tell anyone else that, keep it between us 12.She decided to see him again

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.Chaidh an cr thairis 2.Chaidh an c fodha
3.Thinig e eadarainn 4.Gherr am pian tromham
5.Sgrobh mi litir thuca 6.Dh'fhg i romham
7.Siuthad romham / Gabh romham 8.Chaidh an saighead troimhe
9.Chuir iad romhpa gun a bhith a' dol dhan chilidh 10.Chuir mi romham suidhe sos
11.Cuir a-nall thugam e 12.An do chuir thu romhad gun a bhith a' dol ann?

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