More Conjunctions

You have already met three distinct groups of conjunctions and their usage in . Group 3 is revisited in this lesson and a fourth group is introduced.

Group 3

This group also includes a number of idiomatic conjunctions :
air cho ..  's - no matter how ..
leis cho .. ' s - being so .. as
ge b' e cho ..  's - no matter how ..

Remember Group 3 conjunctions are all followed by the relative clause. For the tenses of the verb TO BE these are :
Present Past Future Conditional
a tha a bha a bhios a bhithinn / a bhiodh
nach eil nach robh nach bi nach bithinn / nach biodh

You have met the relative clause for other verbs in , , , ,
, and

Example Uses

Air cho cir 's a bhios e, cha toir e an cr aige air iasad dhut
Ge b' e cho cir 's a bhios e, cha toir e an cr aige air iasad dhut
- No matter how generous he is, he'll not lend you his car

Air cho soilleir 's a tha a' ghrian a' derrsadh, tha e fhathast fuar a-muigh
Ge b' e cho soilleir 's a tha a' ghrian a' derrsadh, tha e fhathast fuar a-muigh
- No matter how brightly the sun is shining, it's still cold outside
Cha bhi mi a' dol gun dannsadh leis cho sgth 's a tha mi - I'll not be going to the dance being as I'm so tired
lit: I'll not be going to the dance being so tired as I am
Tha e blth a-muigh leis cho soilleir 's a tha a' ghrian a' derrsadh - It's warm outside being as the sun is shining so brightly lit: It's warm outside being so brightly as the sun is shining


Group 4

A number of common ones can all be translated as because and all are more or less interchangeable :
a chionn 's - lit. since air sgth 's - lit. for the sake
airson 's - lit. for do bhrgh 's - lit. for (the) reason
leis - lit. with ri linn 's - lit. due to, since

The terminal 's is optional in all cases but is becoming increasingly common in everyday speech and writing.
The ones most commonly used in everyday speech are : a chionn 's, air sgth 's and airson 's.

Some others fall into this group :
air chor 's - on condition, so that air eagal 's - for fear, lest
cho .. 's - so .. that mar - as if

as distinct from its meaning in Group 2


Group 4 conjunctions are all followed by the dependent clause. For the tenses of the verb TO BE these are:
Present Past Future Conditional
gu bheil gun robh gum bi gum bithinn / gum biodh
nach eil nach robh nach bi nach bithinn / nach biodh

You have met the dependent clause for other verbs in , , , ,
, and

Example Uses

Fhuair e peanas airson 's gun robh e m-mhodhail ris an tidsear - He got a punishment because he was rude to the teacher

Cha bhi mi ann aig a' chilidh a chionn 's nach eil dad freagarrach agam ri chur orm - I'll not be at the ceilidh since I don't have anything suitable to put on

Feumaidh mi mo chta a chur dhom air sgth 's gu bheil e cho teth an seo - I'll need to take off my coat because it's so hot in here
Tha mi a' dol trth dha mo leabaidh leis gu bheil mi cho sgth - I'm going to bed early because I am so tired
Ri linn 's gum bi e blth bragha a-mireach, gabhaidh sinn cuirm-chnuic air an trigh - Since it will be nice and warm tomorrow we will have a picnic on the beach

Faodaidh tu a dhol ann air chor 's gum bi thu modhail - You may go there so long as you are polite

Chaidh iad am falach air eagal 's gun glacadh an t-uilebheist iad - They hid for fear that the monster would catch them
Sheas e mar gun robh na cheannard - He stood as if he was the chief
Bha an duine cho trom 's gun do thuit e tron deigh - The man was so heavy that he fell through the ice

 

Idiomatic Uses of ach

In this situation the conjunction is followed by the interrogative of the verb. The mood created is subjunctive; expressing anticipation, condition or possibility :
Dh'fhg mi an doras fosgailte ach an cluinninn an cmhradh aca - I left the door open so that I might (could) hear their conversation
Gluaisidh mi a' chathair ach am faigh thu mran rim - I'll move the chair so that you may get more room
Sheas e eadar a' chlann is an c ach am biodh iad sbhailte - He stood between the children and the dog so that they might (would) be safe


Idiomatic Uses of agus

In this situation the conjunction has no direct verb and pronouns are emphatic. The mood is one of contrast. Agus can be contracted to is or even 's :
Bha mi a-muigh anns an uisge; agus mise gun chta orm - I was out in the rain with no coat on
Tha mo bhean a' cluiche goilf; agus mise a-staigh a' deasachadh na dnnearach - My wife is playing golf, meanwhile I'm indoors preparing the dinner
Bha c a' comhartaich; is mise a' feuchainn ri tuiteam nam chadal - There was a dog barking, meanwhile I was trying to fall sleep


NEW WORDS

Adjectives

cruaidh - hard

deiseil (de) - finished (with)
freagarrach - suitable m-mhodhail - rude
modhail - polite soilleir - bright

Adverbs

air iasad - on loan

thall thairis - abroad, overseas

Conjunctions

ach - so (subjectively)

a chionn 's - since, because
agus - with, meanwhile air cho .. 's - no matter how ..
air chor 's - on (the) condition, so that air eagal 's - for fear, lest
air sgth 's - because cho .. 's - as .. as
airson 's - for, because do bhrgh 's - because
ge b' e cho .. 's - no matter how ..

leis cho .. 's - seeing as .. so

ri linn - due to, because

Nouns

cirtear, crtair (m) - curtain

fuaradair (m) - refrigerator
nbaidh (m) - neighbour peanas (m) - punishment, penalty
soitheach (m) - dish, vessel teas (m) - heat
uilebheist (m) - monster
cuirm-chnuic (f) - picnic deigh  (f) - ice
dreasa (f) - dress gaoth (f) - wind
iris (f) - magazine line (f) - shirt
miotag (f) - glove

Verbs

craich, cradh - repair, mend

cuir air, cur air - turn on (light, radio &c)
cuir dheth, cur dheth - turn off (light, radio &c) derrs, derrsadh - shine
fuiling, fulang - suffer rach am falach, dol am falach - hide, go into hiding (intransitive verb)
sid, sideadh - blow, swell thoir air iasad (do), toirt air iasad (do) - lend (to)

Verbal Phrases
cuir air, cur air - put on (clothes)
cuir orm/ort &c, cur orm/ort &c e.g.
Chuir mi orm line ghlan - I put on a clean shirt
Chuir mi oirre an ad - I put on her hat. lit: I put on her the hat
cuir de, cur de - take off (clothes)
cuir dhom/dhot &c, cur dhom/dhot &c e.g.
Chuir mi dhom mo chta - I took off my coat
Chuir mo mhthair dhom na miotagan - My mother took off my gloves. lit: My mother put off me the gloves

tha an t-eagal orm/ort &c (ro) - I am/you are &c afraid (of), and often without article: tha eagal orm/ort &c

tha fallas orm/ort &c - I am/you are &c sweating


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1.Cha tid mi dhan chilidh air sgth 's nach eil dreasa agam

2.B' fherr leam fulang a chionn 's gu bheil an t-eagal orm ron fhiaclair
3.Do bhrgh 's gun robh i ann anmoch a-raoir, tha i fhathast na leabaidh 4.Bidh iad a' dol thall thairis a chionn 's gur toil leotha an teas
5.Thuit e na chadal ri linn 's gun robh e sgth dhen chmhradh 6.Dh'fhosgail mi an cirtear air chor 's gum faicinn mo nbaidh a' tighinn
7.Thug mi mlseag dh air chor 's gum biodh i math 8.Air eagal 's gun cailleadh e airgead, chraich a mhthair an toll ann am pcaid a bhriogais
9.Thug mi an iris do mo charaid airson 's gun robh mi deiseil dheth 10.Bidh mi ag irigh trth a-mireach ri linn 's gum feum mi tran a ghlacadh aig sia uairean
11.Dh'innis e an sgeul mar gur e an fhrinn a bha innte 12.Rinn mo mhac na soithichean air eagal 's nach fhaigheadh e airgead-pcaid

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig each of the following using (a) a chionn, (b) air sgth and (c) airson :

1.I would like my dinner now because I am very hungry

2.She keeps the curtains closed because she doesn't like the view
3.We had to lock the door because the wind was blowing strongly 4.They were sweating because they were working so hard
5.I will leave on the light because you are afraid of the dark 6.The milk was sour because she didn't put it back in the refrigerator

EXERCISE 3 Translate into English

1.Ge b' e cho trom 's a bhios an t-uisge, thid sinn gu muir

2.Coisichidh sinn dhachaigh leis cho bragha 's a tha am feasgar
3.Thid mi dhan choinneimh ach am faigh mi cothrom bruidhinn 4.Tha a' Ghidhlig aig mo bhean is a' chlann, agus seo mise gun fhacal agam dhith
5.Air cho cruaidh 's a bhios an obair, bidh i daonnan toilichte 6.Bha an t-uisge cho teth 's gun do loisg mi mo lmh

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.I'll not go to the ceilidh because I don't have a dress 2.I'd rather suffer because I'm very afraid of the dentist
3.Because she was late in last night, she is still in her bed 4.They'll be going abroad because they like heat
5.He fell asleep because he was tired of the conversation 6.I opened the curtain so that I could (would) see my neighbour coming
7.I gave her a sweet on the condition that she would be good 8.For fear that he would lose his money, his mother mended the hole in his trouser pocket
9.I gave my friend the magazine because I was finished with it 10.I will be getting up early tomorrow since I need to catch a train at six o' clock
11.He related the story as if it were the truth 12.My son did the dishes for fear that he wouldn't get his pocket money

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1a.Bu toil leam mo dhnnear a-nis a chionn 's gu bheil an t-acras orm
1b.Bu toil leam mo dhnnear a-nis air sgth 's gu bheil an t-acras orm
1c.Bu toil leam mo dhnnear a-nis airson 's gu bheil an t-acras orm
2a.Cumaidh i na cirtearan dinte a chionn 's nach toil leatha an sealladh
2b.Cumaidh i na cirtearan dinte air sgth 's nach toil leatha an sealladh
2c.Cumaidh i na cirtearan dinte airson 's nach toil leatha an sealladh
3a.Dh'fheumadh sinn an doras a ghlasadh a chionn 's gun robh a' ghaoth a' sideadh gu lidir
3b.Dh'fheumadh sinn an doras a ghlasadh air sgth 's gun robh a' ghaoth a' sideadh gu lidir
3c.Dh'fheumadh sinn an doras a ghlasadh airson 's gun robh a' ghaoth a' sideadh gu lidir
4a.Bha fallas orra a chionn 's gun robh iad ag obair cho cruaidh
4b.Bha fallas orra air sgth 's gun robh iad ag obair cho cruaidh
4c.Bha fallas orra airson 's gun robh iad ag obair cho cruaidh
5a.Fgaidh mi air an solas a chionn 's gum bi eagal ort ron dorchadas
5b.Fgaidh mi air an solas air sgth 's gum bi eagal ort ron dorchadas
5c.Fgaidh mi air an solas airson 's gum bi eagal ort ron dorchadas
6a.Bha am bainne goirt a chionn 's nach do chuir i air ais anns an fhuaradair e
6b.Bha am bainne goirt air sgth 's nach do chuir i air ais anns an fhuaradair e
6c.Bha am bainne goirt airson 's nach do chuir i air ais anns an fhuaradair e

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 3

1.No matter how heavy the rain, we will go to sea

2.We will walk home being as the evening is so fine
3.I will go to the meeting that I may get a chance to talk 4.My wife and children have Gidhlig, meanwhile here am I without a word of it
5.No matter how hard the work, she is always happy 6.The water was so hot that I burnt my hand

This lesson in PDF format

dmlelland - Faodar na leasanan seo ath-riochdachadh le aithneachadh dhan ghdar
dmlelland - These lessons may be reproduced with credit to the author