More Incomplete Verbs

You have already met the first group of the incomplete verbs based on the verb Is in lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes)zero.gif (1045 bytes).

Group2: This group consists of true auxiliary verbs. These are regular verbs but are only found in two tenses.

a. The Auxiliary Verb Faod :
Forms Future Tense Conditional Tense
Statement Faodaidh mi / tu / e / i / sinn / sibh /
iad -
I / you / he / she / we / you / they may
Dh'fhaodainn - I might/ought
Dh'fhaodamaid - We might/ought
Dh'fhaodadh tu / e / i  / sinn / sibh / iad -
you / he / she / we / you / they might/ought
Negative
statement
Chan fhaod mi / thu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
I / you / he / she / we / you / they may not
Chan fhaodainn - I might/ought not
Chan fhaodamaid - We might/ought not
Chan fhaodadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
you / he / she / we / you / they might/ought not
Interrogative Am faod mi / thu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
May I / you / he / she / we / you / they?

Faodaidh - Yes
Chan fhaod - No
Am faodainn? - Might/Ought I?
Am faodamaid? - Might/Ought we?
Am faodadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
Might/Ought you / he / she / we / you / they?

Dh'fhaodadh - Yes
Chan fhaodadh - No
Negative
interrogative
*
Nach  fhaod mi / thu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
May I / you / he / she / we / you / they not?

Faodaidh - Yes
Chan fhaod - No
Nach fhaodainn? - Might/Ought I not?
Nach fhaodamaid? - Might/Ought we not?
Nach fhaodadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
Might/Ought  you / he / she / we / you / they not

Dh'fhaodadh - Yes
Chan fhaodadh - No
Relative 'S mi / tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad a dh'fhaodas -
It's I / you / he / she / we / you / they who may
'S mi / tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad a dh'fhaodadh -
It's I / you / he / she / we / you / they who might/ought

b. The Auxiliary Verb Feum :
Forms Future Tense Conditional Tense
Statement Feumaidh mi / tu / e / i / sinn / sibh /
iad -
I / you / he / she / we / you / they will need (=must)
Dh'fheumainn - I would need
Dh'fheumamaid - We would need
Dh'fheumadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
You / he / she / we / you / they would need
Negative
statement
Chan fheum mi / thu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
I / you / he / she / we / you / they will not need
Chan fheumainn - I would not need
Chan fheumamaid - We would not need
Chan fheumadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
You / he / she / we / you / they would not need
Interrogative Am feum mi / thu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
Will I / you / he / she / we / you / they need?

Feumaidh - Yes
Chan fheum - No
Am feumainn? - Would I need?
Am feumamaid? - Would we need?
Am feumadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
Would you / he / she / we / you / they need?

Dh'fheumadh - Yes
Chan fheumadh - No
Negative
interrogative
*
Nach  fheum mi / thu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
Will I / you / he / she / we / you / they not need?

Feumaidh - Yes
Chan fheum - No
Nach fheumainn? - Would I not need?
Nach fheumamaid? - Would we not need?
Nach fheumadh tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad? -
Would you / he / she / we / you / they not need?

Dh'fheumadh - Yes
Chan fheumadh - No
Relative 'S mi / tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad a dh'fheumas -
It's I / you / he / she / we / you / they who will need
'S mi / tu / e / i / sinn / sibh / iad a dh'fheumadh -
It's I / you / he / she / we / you / they who would need

Remember tu replaces thu after the verb endings -idh in the future and -adh in the conditional.

This synthetic verbs ending  in -maid are becoming less common and are being replaced by the generic verbal forms followed by sinn.

* Words beginning withare usually aspirated after the negative particle Nach

Although structurally a future in most instances this is best translated with a present mood. See examples below.

Example Uses

As described for Group 1 incomplete verbs in lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes)zero.gif (1045 bytes) when the verbs Faod and Feum are followed directly by a verb, the verbal noun is used. Exceptions in both literature and the spoken language are the verbs To Be (a bhith), To Go (a dhol) and To Come (a thighinn) :
Feumaidh mi saor-l - I (will) need a holiday
Faodaidh a h-uile duine seinn - Everyone may sing
Am faod mi leughadh? - May I read?
Chan fheum sinn cobhair - We do (will) not need help
Am feum mi seinn? Chan fheum - Must I sing? No
Dh'fhaodadh an duine a bhith cinnteach - The man ought to have been sure / The man ought to be sure
Am feumadh iad cr?  Dh'fheumadh - Would they need a car? Yes
Dh'fheumamaid suidhe sos - We would need to sit down

Feumaidh sinn suidhe sos - We must (need to) sit down

Chan fheumadh iad a thighinn - They wouldn't need to come
Chan fhaod i a dhol dhan chilidh - She may not go to the ceilidh
Am feum mi a dhol dhachaigh? Feumaidh -   Must I (Do I need) go home? Yes
'S e Iain a dh'fheumas deoch uisge - It's Iain who needs a drink of water

As described for Group 1 Incomplete Verbs (see lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes)zero.gif (1045 bytes)) when the verbs Faod and Feum are followed by the verbal noun taking a direct object word order reversal takes place. Here the object comes first followed by a + lenited verbal noun. The a is dropped before verbal nouns beginning with vowel or beginning with f + vowel :

Am faod mi cel a chluinntinn? - May I hear some music?

Feumaidh e an t-uisge l - He must drink the water
Am feumainn an cr agad a ghlanadh? Dh'fheumadh - Would I need to clean your car? Yes
Am faod sinn an dealbh fhaicinn? - May we see the film?
Am faodadh sibh sin a dhanamh? Chan fhaodadh - Ought you have done that? / Ought you do that?  No
Chan fheumamaid Beurla a bhruidhinn - We wouldn't need to speak English

As described for Group 1 incomplete verbs in lessonbl.gif (1632 bytes)two.gif (1009 bytes)zero.gif (1045 bytes) when the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective placed before the verbal noun. The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the verbal noun whenever possible :
Faodaidh tu an toirt? - You may take them

Chan fhaod thu a bhualadh - You may not hit him

Am feum iad a ghluasad? - Must they move him/it?
Feumaidh Ealasaid d' fhaicinn? - Elisabeth must see you?
Dh'fheumamaid a thogail - We would need to build it (taigh = masculine)
Nach fhaodadh sinn a cur dhachaigh ? - Ought we not send her home?

Some Idiomatic Uses of Feum and Faod

Feumaidh meaning Surely with the Dependent Clause :
Feumaidh gum bi e ann - Surely he'll be there
Feumaidh gun robh iad cerr - Surely they were wrong
Feumaidh nach tig i anns an stoirm seo - Surely she'll not come in this storm

Dh'fhaodadh
meaning Maybe/Perhaps when followed by either positive or negative dependent clause :
Dh'fhaodadh gum bi e ann - Maybe he'll be there
Dh'fhaodadh gun robh iad cerr - Perhaps they were wrong
Dh'fhaodadh nach tig i anns an stoirm seo - Maybe she'll not come in this storm

 

Group 3: This group consists of a true auxiliary verb which is only found in the past tense.

(a) The Auxiliary Verb Theab meaning Nearly or Almost. It is only found in the past tense :
Forms Past Tense
Statement Theab mi / thu / e  / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
I / you / he / she / we / you / they nearly
Negative statement Cha do theab mi / thu / e  / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
I / you / he / she / we / you / they didn't  nearly
Interrogative An do theab mi / thu / e  / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
Did I / you / he / she / we / you / they nearly
Negative
interrogative
Nach do theab mi / thu / e  / i / sinn / sibh / iad -
Did I / you / he / she / we / you / they not nearly

Example Uses

As described for Group 2 verbs above when the verb Theab is followed directly by a verb, the verbal noun is used. Exceptions in both literature and the spoken language are the verbs To Be (a bhith), To Go (a dhol) and To Come (a thighinn) :
Theab mi tuiteam - I almost fell
An do theab thu bthadh? - Did you nearly drown?
Cha do theab i a thighinn - She almost didn't come
Nach do theab i a dhol fodha? - Did it not almost sink?

As described for Group 2 verbs above when the verb Theab is followed by the verbal noun taking a direct object word order reversal takes place. The object comes first followed by a + lenited verbal noun. The a is dropped before verbal nouns beginning with vowel or beginning with f + vowel :
Theab mi an cr a bhualadh - I nearly hit the car
An do theab thu an duine a mharbhadh? - Did you nearly kill the man?
Cha do theab iad a' phiseag a shbhaladh - They almost didn't save the cat
Nach do theab sinn an taigh a sgriosadh? - Didn't we almost ruin the house?

As described for Group 2 verbs above when the object of the sentence is a pronoun then the pronoun is replaced by its possessive adjective placed before the verbal noun. The possessive adjectives mo, do and a (his/its) lenite the verbal noun whenever possible :
Theab mi a bhualadh - I almost hit him/it
An do theab thu a mharbhadh? - Did you nearly kill him?
Cha do theab iad a sbhaladh - They almost didn't save it (piseag = feminine)
Nach do theab sinn a sgriosadh? - Didn't we almost ruin it (taigh = masculine)?

In both literature and the spoken language the sense of Almost or Nearly is more commonly expressed by the use of the assertive verb with the adjective mr. Compare with some examples from the use of Theab :
Using Theab   Using Assertive Verb
Theab mi tuiteam I almost fell Cha mhr nach do thuit mi
An do theab thu bthadh? Did you nearly drown? Nach mr nach do bhth thu?
Cha do theab i a thighinn She almost didn't come Cha mhr gun tinig i
Nach do theab i a dhol fodha? Did it not almost sink? Nach mr gun deach i fodha?
Theab mi an cr a bhualadh I nearly hit the car Cha mhr nach do bhuail mi an cr

An do theab thu an duine a mharbhadh?

Did you nearly kill the man? Nach mr nach do mharbh thu an duine?
Cha do theab i a' phiseag a shbhaladh She almost didn't save the cat Cha mhr gun do shbhail i a' phiseag
Nach do theab sinn an taigh a sgriosadh? Didn't we almost ruin the house Nach mr gun do sgrios sinn an taigh?
Theab mi a bhualadh I almost hit him/it Cha mhr nach do bhuail mi e
An do theab thu a mharbhadh? Did you nearly kill him? Nach mr nach do mharbh thu e?
Cha do theab iad a sbhaladh They almost didn't save it Cha mhr gun do shbhail iad i
Nach do theab sinn a sgriosadh? Didn't we almost ruin it? Nach mr gun do sgrios sinn e?

 

Group 4: This is made up of a miscellany of very incomplete verbs

(a) Arsa meaning Said which is only ever used with quoted text. It is usually abbreviated to ars' before vowels and is always used with emphatic pronouns :
"Ciamar a tha thu?" ars' esan - "How are you?" he said
"Tha mi gu math," arsa mise - "I'm well," I said

(b) Imperatives: A small number of verbs which only exist as imperatives :
Singular / Familiar Plural / Formal
siuthad - go on, proceed siuthadaibh - go on, proceed
thalla (fhalbh ) - go away, shoo thallaibh (fhalbhaibh )- go away, shoo
tiugainn - come along tiugainnibh - come along

trobhad - come hither

trobhadaibh - come hither

fhalbh and fhalbhaibh meaning go away/shoo are pronounced the same as thalla and thallaibh.

NEW WORDS

Adjectives

duilich - difficult, sorry


Nouns

fiaclair (m) - dentist

puinnsean (m) - poison
feil (f) - meat, flesh piseag (f) - kitten

Verbs

aidich, aideachadh - admit, confess

bth, bthadh - drown
rach fodha, dol fodha - sink marbh, marbhadh - kill
sbhail, sbhaladh - save sgrios, sgriosadh - ruin
togair, togairt - want, desire


EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1a.Cha mhr nach do bhris e a chas nuair a thuit e
1b.Theab e a chas a bhriseadh nuair a thuit e

2.Feumaidh mi a dhol dhan dotair a-mireach

3.Tha mi gl dhuilich ach feumaidh mi falbh

4a.Theab e tuiteam sos na staidhrichean
4b.Cha mhr nach do thuit e sos na staidhrichean

5.Am feum thu a bhith ag ithe cho luath? Feumaidh

6.Am faod mi an dealbh dhot fhaicinn? Chan fhaod

7.Trobhad agus bheir mi dhut mlseag

8.Siuthad, dan na thogras tu

9.Cit am faod mi mo chr fhgail?

10.Faodaibh sibh suidhe far na thogras sibh

11a.Theab mi am puinnsean l
11b.Cha mhr nach do dh'l mi am puinnsean

12a.Thuirt e gun do theab e a l
12b.Thuirt e nach mr nach do dh'l e e

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig

1."I'm so sorry", she said

2.They almost fell into the river

3.I must admit that I would prefer coffee

4.You may not sit in that chair, it's mine

5.I've got toothache. I must see the dentist tomorrow

6.I must say that I think he is an evil boy

7.Go on, jump across the river

8.Come with me to the shops

9.I would need to be certain that he wasn't going to spend the money on rubbish

10.They must not stay away from school

11.I almost drank the dirty water

12.He said he almost ate it (feil = feminine)

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.He nearly broke his leg when he fell 2.I must go to the doctor tomorrow
3.I am very sorry but I must leave 4.He almost fell down the stairs
5.Must you eat so fast? Yes 6.May I see the picture of you? No
7.Come here and I'll give you a sweet 8.Go on, do as you please
9.Where can (may) I leave my car 10.You may sit where you like (desire)
11.I almost drank the poison 12.He said he almost drank it

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1."Tha mi cho duilich," ars' ise 2a.Theab iad tuiteam dhan abhainn
2b.Cha mhr nach do thuit iad dhan abhainn
3.Feumaidh mi aideachadh gum b' fherr leam cofaidh 4a.Chan fhaod thu suidhe anns a' chathair sin, is leamsa i
4b.Chan fhaod thu suidhe anns a' chathair sin, 's ann leamsa a tha i
5.Tha dideadh orm. Feumaidh mi am fiaclair fhaicinn a-mireach 6.Feumaidh mi rdh gu bheil mi a' smaointinn gur balach olc e
7.Siuthadaibh, leumaibh thairis air an abhainn 8.Tiugainn leam do na bithean
9.Dh'fheumainn a bhith cinnteach nach robh e a' dol a chosg an airgid air sgudal 10.Chan fheum iad fuireach air falbh bhon sgoil
11a.Cha mhr nach do dh'l mi an t-uisge salach
11b.Theab mi an t-uisge salach l
12a.Thuirt e gun do theab e a h-ithe
12b.Thuirt e nach mr nach do dh'ith e i

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