Summary of Dative and Genitive Changes in Singular Nouns

This lesson summarises the changes associated with the dative and genitive changes in singular masculine and feminine nouns.

Masculine Nouns
There is no indefinite article in any of the cases.

1. The Nominative Case:
The definite article is an except for nouns beginning with b, f, m & p when it is am
A t- is placed before definite nouns beginning with a vowel

2. The Dative Case:
The definite article is otherwise an except for nouns beginning with b, m, p, c & g when it is a'
Definite nouns beginning with b, f, m, p, c & g lenite the initial consonant
A t- is placed before definite nouns beginning with  sl, sn, sr & s+vowel
After prepositions ending in a vowel the definite article remains an and fuses with the preposition  e.g.
dha + an >> dhan

3. The Genitive Case:.
The definite article is an except for nouns beginning with b, m, p, c & g when it is a'
Definite nouns beginning with b, f, m, p, c & g lenite the initial consonant
A t- is placed before definite nouns beginning with  sl, sn, sr & s+vowel
The nouns undergo internal vowel modifications: with the general trend of narrowing the final internal vowel to i

The following is a brief summary of singular nouns from nominative through dative to genitive cases. The examples are with the article to illustrate initial consonant changes :
Nominative Dative Genitive Internal Vowel Changes
am brd - the poet dhan bhrd - to the poet a' bhird - of the poet addition of i
a >> ai
o >> oi
u >> ui
ao >> aoi
an rn - the seal bhon rn - from the seal an rin - of the seal
an dn - the fort

anns an dn - in the fort

an din - of the fort

an gaol - the love

leis a' ghaol - with the love

a' ghaoil - of the love

an t-allt - the stream anns an allt - in the stream an uillt - of the stream a & o >> ui
an corp - the body fon chorp - under the body a' chuirp - of the body
am port - the port ris a' phort - at the port a' phuirt - of the port

am mac - the son

leis a' mhac - with the son

a' mhic - of the son

a, ea & io >> i

an coileach - the cock

fon choileach - under the cock

a' choilich - of the cock

am fear - the man

ris an fhear - to the man

an fhir - of the man

an sol - seed anns an t-sol - in the seed an t-sl - of the seed

an coibhneas - the kindness

leis a' choibhneas - with the kindness a' choibhneis - of the kindness ea, eu & ia >> ei
an ceum - the step

anns a' cheum - in the step

a' chim - of the step

am fiadh - the deer

fon fhiadh - under the deer

an fhidh - of the deer

an t-iasg - the fish

air an iasg - on the fish

an isg - of the fish

an dall - blindman ris an dall - to the blindman an doill - of the blindman a >> oi

am beul - the mouth

air a' bheul - on the mouth

a' bheil - of the mouth eu >> eoi

an t-eun - bird

don eun - to the bird

an ein - of the bird

am feur - grass anns an fheur - in the grass an fheir - of the grass
an cel - the music tron chel - through the music a' chiil - of the music eo >> iui
an sel - the sail fon t-sel - under the sail an t-siil - of the sail


Feminine Nouns

There is no indefinite article in any of the cases

1. The Nominative Case:
The definite article is otherwise an except for nouns beginning with b, m, p, c & g when it is a'
Definite nouns beginning with b, f, m, p, c & g lenite the initial consonant
A t- is placed before definite nouns beginning with  sl, sn, sr & s+vowel

2. The Dative Case:
The definite article is otherwise an except for nouns beginning with b, m, p, c & g when it is a'
Definite nouns beginning with b, f, m, p, c & g lenite the initial consonant
A t- is placed before definite nouns beginning with  sl, sn, sr & s+vowel
After prepositions ending in a vowel the definite article remains an and fuses with the preposition  e.g.
dha + an >> dhan
The nouns undergo internal vowel modifications : with the general trend of narrowing the final internal vowel to i

These internal vowel changes are less frequently heard in the spoken language, but still appear in literature

3. The Genitive Case:
The definite article is always na (na h- before vowels)
The nouns undergo internal vowel modifications: with the general trend of narrowing the final internal vowel to i
A terminal e is added to monosyllabic nouns. Polysyllabic nouns exhibit this to a lesser degree and it is considered optional in both the spoken and written language

The following is a brief summary of the changes experienced from nominative to dative to genitive singular cases. The examples are with the article to illustrate any initial consonant changes. Internal vowel changes are for the most part identical in the dative and genitive cases :
Nominative Dative Genitive Internal Vowel Changes
a' mharag - the pudding anns a' mharaig - in the pudding na maraig(e) - of the pudding addition of i
a >> ai
o >> oi
an tn - the rump air an tin - on the rump na tine - of the rump

an long - the ship

air an luing - on the ship na luinge - of the ship

o >> ui

an tonn - the wave fon tuinn - under the wave na tuinne - of the wave

a' chearc - hen

dhan chirc - to the hen na circe - of the hen

ea & io >> i

a' chroch - the boundary aig a' chrch - at the boundary na crche - of the boundary

a' bhas - palm

air a' bhois - on the palm na boise - of the palm a >> oi

a' chlann - the children

dhan chloinn - to the children

na cloinne - of the children

an fhras - the shower

fon fhrois - under the shower

na froise - of the shower

a' bhreug - the lie leis a' bhrig - with the lie na brige - of the lie

ea, eu & ia >> ei

a' chaileag - the girl dhan chaileig - to the girl na caileig(e) - of the girl
a' chreach - the plunder anns a' chreich - in the plunder na creiche - of the plunder
a' ghrian - the sun ris a' ghrin - to the sun na grine - of the sun

an iall - the strap

air an ill - on the strap na h-ille - of the strap
an t-sealg - the hunt anns an t-seilg - in the hunt na seilge - of the hunt



NEW WORDS

Nouns (with genitive singular and nominative plural)

allt, g. & pl. uillt (m) - stream

ball, g.& pl. buill (m) - member

beul, g. & pl. beil (m) - mouth

car, g. cuir, pl. caran (m) - twist

cirdeas, g. cirdeis (m) - friendship

crn, g. & pl. cirn & cirn (m) - carn

ceum, g. cim, pl. ceumannan (m) -step, pace

clag, g. & pl. cluig (m) - bell

cliabh, g. & pl. clibh (m) - creel

coibhneas, g. coibhneis (m) - kindness

coileach, g. & pl. coilich (m) - cockerel

corp, g. & pl. cuirp (m) - body
dall, g. & pl. doill (m) - blindman deur, g. & pl. deir (m) - tear

dn, g. & pl. din (m) - fort

eun, g.& pl. ein (m) - bird

lon, g. & pl. ln (m) - net

mac, g. & pl. mic (m) - son
meur, g. pl. meir (m) - finger namh, g. nimh, pl. namhan (m) - heaven

neul, g. & pl. neil (m) - cloud

olc, g. uilc (m) - evil

rd, g. & pl. ird (m) - hammer

sol, g. & pl. sl (m) - seed

sliabh, g. slibh, pl. slibhtean (m) - hill, hillside

toll, g. & pl. tuill (m) - hole

tonn, g. & pl. tuinn (m) - wave

breug, g. brige, pl. breugan (f) - lie

cealg, g. ceilge, pl. cealgan (f) - deceit

ciall, g. cille, pl. cialltan (f) - sense

creach, g. creiche, pl. creachan (f) - plunder, raid

creag, g. creige, pl. creagan (f) - cliff, crag, rock

croch, g. crche, pl. crochan (f) - limit, boundary

fras, g. froise, pl. frasan (f) - shower

geug, g. gige, pl. geugan (f) - branch, bough

iall, g. ille, pl. ialltan (f) - strap, leash

leac, g. lice, pl. leacan (f) - slab, tile, flagstone

lorg, g. luirge, pl. lorgan (f) - trace, track

sealg, g. seilge, pl. sealgan (f) - hunt
sgeul, g. & pl. sgeil (m & f) - story tonn, g. tuinne, pl. tonnan (f) - wave

EXERCISE 1 Translate into English

1.rain a' bhird; ad a' bhoireannaich; clachan a' chirn;

2.fuaim a' chluig; ceann fir; cas coilich; lmh a' mhic;

3.meud an ln; ceann an isg, earball fidh; seinn ein;

4.sruth deir; drochaid na luinge; ruith tuinne; callaid crche;

5.gob circe; dideagan cloinne; l na seilge; fear na creiche

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig

1.the taste of bread; a boy's hand; the water of the burn; grazing of cattle;

2.the glen road; a trout head; my son's house; the kindness of friendship;
3.the grass of the slope; the story's end; the colour of the cloud;
4.the movement of the sail; the leg pain; the size of the stone;
5.a woman of deceit; window glass; the sense of the story

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.the poet's songs; the woman's hat; the stones of the cairn;
2.the sound of the bell; a man's head; the cockerel's leg; the son's hand;
3.the size of the net; the head of the fish; a deer's tail; the singing of a bird;
4.the flow of a tear; the ship's bridge; a run of a wave; a boundary fence;
5.a hen's beak; children's toys; the day of the hunt; the man of the raid

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.blas arain; lmh balaich; uisge an uillt; ionaltradh cruidh;
2.rathad a' ghlinn; ceann bric; taigh mo mhic; coibhneas cirdeis;
3.feur an t-slibh; croch an sgeil; dath an neil;
4.gluasad an t-siil; pian na coise; meud na cloiche;
5.boireannach ceilge; glainne uinneig; ciall na sgeil

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