Some Common Conjunctions

Group 1

agus - and / as
ach - but / however,  oir - for / because

These are considered to be the simple conjunctions as they are followed by the simple statement forms of the verb (positive and negative) :

Tenses of the Verb TO BE

Present Past Future Conditional
tha bha bidh bhithinn / bhiodh
chan eil cha robh cha bhi cha bhithinn / cha bhiodh

Uses
:
Cha bhi mi a' dol a-muigh oir tha an t-uisge ann - I will not be going out because it is raining

Group 2


fhads - while
ged - although,  mar - as / how,  ma - if ,  nuair - when,  on / bhon - since

These are all followed by the relative clause :

Tenses of the Verb TO BE

Present Past Future Conditional
a tha a bha a bhios a bhithinn / a bhiodh
nach eil nach robh nach bi nach bithinn / nach biodh

Uses :
Fhads a tha dchas ann - While there is hope
Ged a tha e beag tha e lidir - Although he is small he is strong
Seo mar a bha e - This is as (how) it was
Ma bhios e blth a-mireach, bidh mi ann * - If it is (will be) dry tomorrow, I'll be there
Tha e m-chilear nuair a tha e fuar is fliuch - It is unpleasant when it is cold and wet
Bha i mar sin on a bha i na caileig ig - She has been like that since she was a young girl

* Where the conjunction ends in a vowel the relative pronoun a is elided in both speech and literature.

Group 3

far - where
mus, mun / mum - before,   gus - until / in order that, mur / mura - unless, if not

These are all followed by the the interrogative forms of the verb :

Tenses of the Verb TO BE

Present Past Future Conditional
a bheil an robh am bi am bithinn / am biodh
nach eil nach robh nach bi nach bithinn / nach biodh

Uses :
Suidh far a bheil thu! - Sit where you are!
Bha e na bhanaltram mus robh e na dhotair * - He was a nurse before he was a doctor
Bha e na bhanaltram mun robh e na dhotair * - He was a nurse before he was a doctor
Fuirich gus am bi m fhn ann - Wait until I'm (will be) there
Cha bhi mi ann mura bi thu fhin ann - I will not be there unless you are (will be)
Chan eil mi toilichte mur eil thusa - I am not happy if you aren't

* the interrogative particle an / am is not used after mus or mun / mum

the interrogative particle an / am is not used after mur except in the past tense. The form mura is used before verbs beginning with a consonant. With the Present Tense of the verb To Be the form eil is used in place of bheil. The negative verb can never be used with mur / mura.
In the past tense we therefore find :
Ciamar a tha fios agad mur an do leugh thu an litir? - How do you know unless you read the letter
Bha m' ad air a' bhrd mur an do ghluais duine i - My hat was on the table unless someone moved it.


NEW WORDS

Adjectives
anmoch - late deiseil - ready
denach - willing dorch - dark
glic - wise lidir - strong
m-chilear - unpleasant, distasteful

Conjunctions
far - where ged - although
gus - until mar / man - as
mur - unless, if not mus, mun / mum - before
nuair - when oir - for, because
on, bhon - since

Nouns
bus (m) - bus rud (m) - thing
cil (f) - anything

Verbal phrases
Tha an t-uisge ann - It is raining Bha an t-uisge ann - It was raining

EXERCISE 1 Translate into English
1.Chan eil fios agam far a bheil do mhthair 2.Suidh sos gus am bi do dhnnear deiseil
3.Bha uisge trom ann nuair bha iad ag iasgach air an loch 4.Ged a tha iad trang bhiodh iad toilichte gad chuideachadh
5.Dan mar a tha mi ag rdh 6.Bidh e dorch mus bi i dhachaigh
7.Cha b' urrainn dhomh cr a cheannach on nach robh airgead agam 8.Bha i cho bidheach nuair bha i g
9.Ma tha sibh sgth suidhibh sos 10.Mar as (= a + 's) urrainn dhut faicinn chan eil cil agam nam phcaid
11.Bha mi a' bruidhinn rithe fhads a bha sinn a' coiseachd 12.An toil leat far a bheil thu a' fuireach?

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig
1.Although he is not very (so) big he is quite strong 2.I was staying in that town when I was a boy
3.That's the place where I would prefer to be 4.Don't go out(side) until the rain is off (=dheth)
5.Since he is so lazy he will not be willing to go to the shop 6.He will be singing at the ceilidh although he is ill
7.Are you happy where you're sitting? Yes 8.Run home before it rains
9.Run when I say 'ready' 10.She will not be coming since she isn't sure that there will be a bus home

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.I don't know where your mother is 2.Sit down until your dinner is ready
3.It was raining heavy when they were fishing on the loch 4.Although they are busy they would be pleased to help you
5.Do as I say 6.It will be dark before she's (will be) home
7.I couldn't buy a car since I hadn't any money 8.She was so beautiful when she was young
9.If you are tired sit down 10.As you can see I don't have anything in my pocket
11.I was speaking to her while we were walking 12.Do you like where you are staying?

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.Ged nach eil e cho mr tha e gu math lidir 2.Bha mi a' fuireach anns a' bhaile sin nuair a bha mi nam bhalach
3.Sin an t-ite far am b' fherr leam a bhith 4.Na rach a-muigh gus am bi an t-uisge dheth
5.On a tha e cho leisg cha bhi e denach a dhol dhan bhth 6.Bidh e a' seinn aig a' chilidh ged tha e tinn
7.A bheil thu toilichte far a bheil thu nad shuidhe? Tha 8.Ruith dhachaigh mus bi an t-uisge ann
9.Danaibh ruith nuair a tha mi ag rdh 'deiseil' 10.Cha bhi i a' tighinn on nach eil i cinnteach gum bi bus dhachaigh

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