Augmented Prepositions

Pronouns in Gidhlig can not follow verbal nouns as in English, e.g. I am doing it.
Instead the possessive adjective is placed before the verbal noun to indicate the person. There are two basic ways that this can happen :

1. WITH PRESENT PARTICIPLES
With present participles the verbal noun is already preceded by the preposition a' / ag (which are simply reduced forms of the preposition aig) :
Tha mi ag ithe Tha mi a' faicinn

The preposition aig combines with the possessive adjectives to form what is termed an Augmented Prepositions :
gam - at my gar - at our
gad - at your gur - at your
ga - at his gan / gam - at their
ga - at her

Uses:
Tha e gam bhualadh * - He is hitting me / He hits me (lit. He is at my hitting)
Tha mi gad fhaicinn * - I am seeing you / I see you (lit. I am at your seeing (sing.)
Tha mi ga dhanamh * - I am doing it  / I do it (lit. I am at its doing) e.g. it = writing (m)
Tha mi ga h-ithe - I am eating it / I eat it (lit. I am at its eating) e.g. it = dinner (f)
Tha e gar cuideachadh - He is helping us / He helps us (lit. He is at our helping)
Tha mi gur faicinn -  I am seeing you / I see you (lit. I am at your seeing (pl.)
Tha i gan togail - She is lifting them / She lifts them (lit. She is at their lifting)
Tha i gam bualadh - She is hitting them / She hits them (lit. She is at their hitting)

* Like the possessive adjectives, the 1st, 2nd & 3rd person singular augmented prepositions will lenite the verbal noun whenever possible.
Like the possessive adjective, ga when referring to a feminine object requires h- before a verbal noun beginning with a vowel.

When followed by a consonant gam and gad are frequently pronounced ga mo and ga do respectively :
Tha e gam bhualadh - He is hitting me / He hits me (lit. He is at my hitting)
Tha mi gad choimhead - I am watching you  (lit. I am at your watching (sing.)


2. VERBS OF ACTION

Verbs expressing continuous actions use augmented prepositions based on ann (in) in place of ag, giving rise to the following :
nam - in my nar - in our
nad - in your nur - in your
na - in his nan / nam - in their
na - in her

The verbal nouns commonly affected are ones describing a condition: standing, sitting, lying, running, stopping, waking, stretching out, sleeping & being still/quiet/at rest :
Tha mi nam shuidhe * - I am sitting down / I am seated (lit. I am in my sitting)
Thu thu nad chadal * - You are sleeping / You are asleep (lit. You are in your sleeping (sing.)
Tha e na shneadh * - He is stretched out (lit. He is in his stretching out)
Tha i na laighe  - She is lying down (lit. She is in her lying)
Thinig sinn nar ruith - We came running (lit. We came in our running)
Tha sibh nur disg - You are awake (lit. You are in your waking (pl.)
Tha iad nan seasamh - They are standing (lit. They are in their standing)
Tha sinn nar stad - We are stopped (lit. We are in our stopping)
Tha iad nan tmh - They are still/at rest (lit. They are in their stillness)

* Like the corresponding possessive adjectives, the 1st, 2nd & 3rd person singular augmented prepositions will lenite the verbal noun whenever possible.

When followed by a consonant nam and nad are frequently pronounced na mo and na do respectively:
Tha mi nam shuidhe - I am sitting down / I am seated (lit. I am in my sitting)
Thu thu nad chadal - You are sleeping / You are asleep (lit. You are in your sleeping (sing.)

The augmented prepositions using ann have another important use in expressing profession, trade etc :
Tha mi nam sheladair - I am a sailor (lit. I am in my sailor)
Tha thu nad dhealbhaiche - You are a designer (lit. You are in your designer (sing.)
Tha e na shaor - He is a joiner (lit. He is in his joiner)
Tha i na saor - She is a joiner (lit. She is in her joiner)
Tha sinn nar banaltraman - We are nurses (lit. We are in our nurses)
Tha sibh nur ministearan - You are ministers (lit. You are in your ministers (pl.)
Tha iad nan sagartan - They are priests (lit. They are in their priests)
Tha iad nam balaich - They are boys (lit. They are in their boys)

The augmented prepositions can be used with verbal nouns in any tense of the verb To Be.

All augmented prepositions are shown in

Common Usage
The augmented preposition of aig my also used where the possessive adjective follows the preposition ann :
D tha agad nur limh? - What do you have in your hand?
Chan eil dad agam nam phcaid - I don't have anything in my pocket
Tha rud aice na sil - She has something in her eye

Not shown here but like the possessive adjective, na when referring to a feminine subject requires h- before a  noun beginning with a vowel.
Remember the possessive adjective in usually used in preference to the prepositional pronouns of aig when expressing close personal associations e.g. kinship, parts of the body etc (see ).

NEW WORDS

Adverbs
air ais - back air falbh - away
cuideachd - also, too uair - once (once upon a time)

Nouns
banaltram (m) - nurse dealbhaiche (m) - designer
ministear (m) - minister neach-teagaisg (m) - teacher
saighdear (m) - soldier sagart (m) - priest
saor (m) - carpenter seladair (m) - sailor
sgrobhadair (m) - writer tmh (m) - rest, stillness

Verbs
caidil, cadal - sleep cuidich, cuideachadh - help
cuimhnich, cuimhneachadh (air) - remember disg, dsgadh - awake, wake up
laigh, laighe - lie down sn, sneadh - stretch out
stad, stad - stop tuig, tuigsinn - understand

EXERCISE 1 Translate into English
1.Tha e na sheasamh ris an doras 2.A bheil iad ga fhgail aig an taigh? Tha
3.Bha e ga toirt dhan nighean 4.Tha e ag rdh gun robh e uair na shaighdear
5.Am bi thu ga chur dhachaigh? Cha bhi 6.Bha i na laighe na leabaidh fhin
7.Bidh iad daonnan nan ruith 8.Bha i gan cur air falbh anns a' bhogsa
9.Tha mi a' smaointinn gum bi iad ga cuideachadh le a h-obair 10.An robh an teine gur cumail blth? Bha
11.Am biodh sibh ga fosgladh a-mireach? Bhiodh 12.Uair bha i na sgrobhadair Gidhlig

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig
1.He was a soldier but now he is a carpenter 2.He says that he wasn't throwing them away
3.Do you see it now? Yes I see it 4.They were all standing on the road
5.Was she sleeping in your bed last night? Indeed not 6.I think (that) you hear me very well
7.I don't remember him at all 8.Will you be taking him to the park tomorrow? Yes
9.I want you (sibh) to go down the street to the shop 10.Don't you understand me at all?
11.He was a teacher but he will soon be a designer 12.He is the priest in this parish and she is the minister

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.He is standing at(against) the door 2.Are they leaving him/it at home? Yes
3.He was giving it to the girl 4.He says that he was once a soldier
5.Will you be sending him home? No 6.She was lying in her own bed
7.They are always running 8.She was putting them away in the box
9.I think that they will help(will be helping) her with her work 10.Was the fire keeping you warm? Yes
11.Would you be opening it tomorrow? Yes 12.At one time she was a Gidhlig writer

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2
1.Bha e na shaighdear ach a-nis tha e na shaor 2.Tha e ag rdh nach robh e gan tilgeil air falbh
3.A bheil thu ga fhaicinn a-nis? Tha, tha mi ga fhaicinn 4.Bha iad uile nan seasamh air an rathad
5.An robh i na cadal nad leabaidh a-raoir? Cha robh gu dearbh 6.Tha mi a' smaointinn gu bheil thu gam chluinntinn gl mhath
7.Chan eil mi ga chuimhneachadh idir 8.Am bi sibh ga thoirt dhan phirc a-mireach? Bithidh
9.Tha mi gur n-iarraidh a dhol sos an t-srid dhan bhth 10.Nach eil thu gam thuigsinn idir?
11.Bha e na neach-teagaisg ach a dh'aithghearr bidh e na dhealbhaiche 12.Tha e na shagart anns an sgre seo, agus tha i na ministear

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