The Root of the Verb, Imperatives and Past Participles

VERB ROOT & IMPERATIVES
In Gidhlig the 2nd person singular (thu) imperative is the same as the ROOT of the verb. For the 2nd person plural and formal form (sibh) add: -ibh / -aibh to the root according to the spelling rule :
Verbal Noun Verb Root and
2nd Person Singular Imperative
2nd Person Plural Imperative
bualadh - striking buail - strike buailibh - strike
togail - lifting tog - lift togaibh - lift
sgrobhadh - writing sgrobh - write sgrobhaibh - write

For 1st person plural adds  -eamaid / -amaid to the root :
Cuireamaid litir thuige - Let us send a letter to him
Rachamaid dhachaigh - Let us go home

Negative forms have Na before the imperative (Na h- before vowels) :
Na din an doras - Don't close the door
Na h-laibh am bainne - Don't drink the milk
Na bitheamaid* muladach - Let us not be sad

* With the verb To Be this is more usually written as biomaid for the 1st person plural unless emphasis is required

1st person singular adds -im / -aim to the root.
3rd person singular and plural add -eadh / -adh to the root.
Both these forms are becoming less frequent in spoken Gidhlig; being replaced by the verb leig (let)  followed by the preposition le and its associated prepositional pronouns :
Leig leam fhaicinn - Let me see it
Leig leotha a dhol dhachaigh - Let them go home
Leig leis a-muigh - Let him out
Leig leatha a-staigh - Let her in

PAST PARTICIPLES

These are formed by adding -te to the root of the verb. The past participle ending may break the spelling rule :
Tha an uinneag dinte - The window is closed
Bha an doras fosgailte - The door was open(ed)
Tha an litir sgrobhte - The letter is written

There are a few resistant historic forms that add -ta in preference to -te :
Tha an obair danta - The job is done
Tha iad psta tr bliadhna - They are married three years

As in English the past participles can be used as adjectives :
Tha a' chraid phsta ag obair cmhla - The married couple are working together
Bha an copan briste air an rlar - The broken cup was on the floor

NEW WORDS

Adjectives
dreach - straight, direct muladach - sad

Nouns
craid (f) - couple, pair dnnear (f) - dinner
sil (f) - eye, glimpse, look teanga (f) - tongue

Phrases
mas e do thoil e - please (informal,singular) mas e ur toil e - please (formal,plural)

Verbs
can, cantainn (ri) - say (to) cluinn, cluinntinn - hear
cum/cm, cumail - keep, hold faigh, faighinn - get, find
fan, fantainn (ri) - wait (for) fs, fs - grow
fosgail, fosgladh - open gluais, gluasad - move
rach, dol - go seas, seasamh - stand
suidh, suidhe - sit thig, tighinn - come
thoir, toirt (do) - take, give (to) tilg, tilgeil (air) - throw (at)
tog, togail - lift, build

EXERCISE 1 Translate into English
1.Thoir an leabhar dhan chaileig sin 2.Dinibh an doras mas e ur toil e
3.Na ruith cho luath 4.Can a-rithist e
5.Rach dhan t-semar agad fhin a-nis 6.Cumaibh ur silean fosgailte
7.Bha an taigh togte an-uiridh 8.Seas gu dreach
9.Thigibh a-staigh agus suidhibh sos 10.Na creidibh e

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig using (i) sibh, (ii) thu
1.Don't throw paper on the floor 2.Give the pen to the boy
3.Move your hand please 4.Put the cup down
5.Say that again slowly please 6.Wait here
7.Eat your dinner 8.Don't do that again
9.Believe me, I'm correct 10.Think again

sibh

thu

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 1
1.Give the book to that girl 2.Close the door please
3.Don't run so fast 4.Say it again
5.Go to your own room now 6.Keep you eyes open
7.The house was built last year 8.Stand (up) straight
9.Come in(side) and sit down 10.Don't believe him/it

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2 using sibh
1.Na tilgibh pipear air an lr 2.Thoiribh am peann dhan bhalach
3.Gluaisibh ur lmh mas e ur toil e 4.Cuiribh an copan sos
5.Canaibh a-rithist sin gu mall mas e ur toil e 6.Fuirichibh an seo
7.Ithibh ur dnnear 8.Na danaibh a-rithist sin
9.Creidibh mi. Tha mi ceart 10.Smaoinichibh a-rithist

ANSWERS - EXERCISE 2 using thu
1.Na tilg pipear air an lr 2.Thoir am peann dhan bhalach
3.Gluais do lmh mas e do thoil e 4.Cuir an copan sos
5.Can a-rithist sin gu mall mas e do thoil e 6.Fuirich an seo
7.Ith do dhnnear 8.Na dan a-rithist sin
9.Creid mi. Tha mi ceart 10.Smaoinich a-rithist

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