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Declension of Adjectives

Singular Adjectives
Genitive   Nominative Dative
Lenition of all adjectives beginning with lenitable consonant groups: b, f, m, p, c, g, d, t, sl, sn, s+vowel. With
Masculine
Noun
Adjective as basic form Lenition of all adjectives beginning with lenitable consonant groups: b, f, m, p, c, g, d, t, sl, sn, s+vowel. However, no lenition with indefinite masculine noun
Slenderise final vowel if possible by inserting i (with or without vowel modification ) or replace vowel group with i
With
Feminine
Noun
Lenition of all adjectives beginning with lenitable consonant groups: b, f, m, p, c, g, d, t, sl, sn, s+vowel
add terminal e to monosyllabic adjectives Slenderise final vowel if possible by inserting i (with or without vowel modification ) or replace vowel group with i

Adjectives which already have a terminal vowel do not undergo any internal vowel changes. Internal modifications associated with declension of adjectives are comprehensively covered in .

Example :
Genitive   Nominative Dative
lmh balaich mhir
lmh a' bhalaich mhir
With
Masculine
Noun
balach mr
am balach mr
le balach mr
leis a' bhalach mhr
oisean balla ghuirm
oisean a' bhalla ghuirm
balla gorm
am balla gorm
air balla gorm
air a' bhalla ghorm
lmh caileige mire
lmh na caileige mire
With
Feminine
Noun
caileag mhr
a' chaileag mhr
le caileig mhir
leis a' chaileig mhir
am broinn aide guirme
am broinn na h-aide guirme
ad ghorm
an ad ghorm
air aid ghuirm
air an aid ghuirm

Erosion of the Adjective

The general pattern of erosion is analogous to the feminine nouns. In the spoken language the dative is eroding towards the nominative, and the genitive towards the dative :
Genitive   Nominative Dative
Lenition of all adjectives beginning with lenitable consonant groups: b, f, m, p, c, g, d, t, sl, sn, s+vowel.
Slenderise final vowel if possible by inserting i (with or without vowel modification ) or replace vowel group with i
With
Masculine
Noun
Adjective as basic form Lenition of all adjectives beginning with lenitable consonant groups: b, f, m, p, c, g, d, t, sl, sn, s+vowel. However, no lenition with indefinite masculine noun
With
Feminine
Noun
Lenition of all adjectives beginning with lenitable consonant groups: b, f, m, p, c, g, d, t, sl, sn, s+vowel

Example
Low register adjectives should only be used with their corresponding low register nouns. Associating high register adjectives with low register nouns and vice versa should be avoided :
Genitive   Nominative Dative
lmh balaich mhir
lmh a' bhalaich mhir
With
Masculine
Noun
balach mr
am balach mr
le balach mr
leis a' bhalach mhr
oisean balla ghuirm
oisean a' bhalla ghuirm
balla gorm
am balla gorm
air balla gorm
air a' bhalla ghorm
lmh caileig mhir
lmh na caileig mhir
With
Feminine
Noun
caileag mhr
a' chaileag mhr
le caileag mhr
leis a' chaileig mhr
am broinn aid ghuirm
am broinn na h-aid ghuirm
ad ghorm
an ad ghorm
air ad ghorm
air an ad ghorm

Plural Adjectives
The form is the same for all cases. Either a terminal -e or -a is added to the basic form according to the spelling rule. The plural adjective is only ever lenited if the preceding noun has a final slender vowel :
 

Nominative =

= Dative

Genitive
With
Masculine
Noun
balaich mhra
na balaich mhra
le balaich mhra
leis na balaich mhra
lmhan bhalach mra
lmhan nam balach mra
ballachan gorma
na ballachan gorma
air ballachan gorma
air na ballachan gorma
oisean bhallachan gorma
oisean nam ballachan gorma
With
Feminine
Noun
caileagan mra
na caileagan mra
caileagan mra
na caileagan mra
lmhan chaileagan mra
lmhan nan caileagan mra
adan gorma
na h-adan gorma
air adan gorma
air na h-adan gorma
am broinn adan gorma
am broinn nan adan gorma


Comparatives

For regular adjectives the comparative is for the most part identical to the high register feminine genitive singular adjective. Some polysyllabic adjectives lose their final short vowel group. A terminal -e is always added
. Adjectives which already have a terminal vowel do not undergo any change :
Basic Adjective Genitive Singular Feminine  

Comparative

uaine uaine   uaine
rd irde   irde
gorm guirme   guirme
bidheach bidhiche loss of vowel(s) in final syllable bidhche
domhainn domhainn doimhne


The comparatives are comprehensively covered in .

 

dmlelland - Faodar na leasanan seo ath-riochdachadh le aithneachadh dhan ghdar
dmlelland - These lessons may be reproduced with credit to the author